Basic Skills Used in Volleyball

Serving – Every play in volleyball starts with the serve. It is the only skill of the game which is completely in the control of the individual player. The serve may be executed either from a standing position or while jumping. The two primary types are float serves, which are hit with no spin so as to knuckle in the air, and top spin serves, which are struck so as to cause the ball to dip down toward the end of its flight.

Passing – Passing is the act of directing a ball coming from the other team in the form of either a serve or other non-attack form of play toward the net where it can be set. Quite often these passes are executed using the forearms (sometimes known as bumping), but they can also be done overhead (at least in the indoor game).

Setting – After a ball is passed (or dug) on the first contact, a second one is used to provide an attackable ball to a hitter. This set is usually executed overhand in the indoor game, though can also be accomplished using a forearm pass. You will see the latter – generally referred to as a bump set – in the beach game quite often where the restrictions on ball-handling are somewhat tighter.

Hitting – Also known as spiking, hitting is the process of attacking the ball into the opponents court. The objective is to score a point by causing the ball to land on the floor or to be played out of bounds by a defending player. This is generally accomplished by jumping and hitting the ball above the height of the net with a downward trajectory.

Blocking – The first line of defense against a hitter is the block. In blocking, a player (or players) attempt to prevent the ball from being played into their court by stopping it from crossing the net at the point of attack. This is executed by jumping very near the net and extending the arms above the head, and into the opponents side of the court for those with the height and/or jumping ability to do so.

Digging – Executed in a similar fashion to passing, digging is the handling of an attacked ball. It can be done either using a forearm pass or overhead, though generally speaking the ball is coming at a more rapid pace than in the case of normal passing. The idea, however, is the same in terms of playing the ball in the direction of the net to then be set.

Basketball Drills

If you want to become a great basketball player you need to work on more than what you’re already good at. Your biggest and fastest improvements in basketball will come from working on things that you’re not so good at.

So if your weak hand isn’t very good, you should be working on basketball drills that focus on your weak hand. If your shooting needs work, you should focus on that. If your ball handling needs improvement you should do drills for that, etc.

You’ll see much bigger and faster improvements in areas that you’re currently weak at than the areas you’re already good at. Also, by improving on these weaknesses you’ll have very few “holes” in your game, making you a better all around basketball player that is much more difficult to guard and much more valuable to your coach and team.

Effective Basketball Drills

The second thing to consider is the quality of the drills. For this you need to look at both the drill itself and how it applies to you. A few questions you’ll want to ask are:

Is the drill effective?

Is it challenging for you or getting you results?

Does the drill work on one of my weaknesses?

You’ll want most drills to be challenging in order to see improvement, but realize that some drills can still benefit you greatly even though they don’t seem difficult. Also, once again, you’ll also want to look at whether or not the drill is working on improving one of your weaknesses in basketball or not.

Which Drills I Recommend

These are some of the drills that I’ve found to be most beneficial for shooting:

  • 1 hand form shooting under the basket
  • getting repetitions of shooting in off the dribble going both left and right
  • getting in repetitions of catching and shooting
  • standing near the basket and working on changing body positions and hitting different points on the backboard to bank the shot in

Some of my favorite ball handling drills include:

  • spider dribble
  • low crossovers at maximum speed
  • working on game specific moves and driving to the basket
  • almost any 2 ball dribbling drills
  • any ball handling drill that forces you to stay low

Post Up Tennis Goals

Most junior players don’t reach their tennis goals because they are not posted up and in blindsight, for them to look at.

Out of sight, out of mind, is real, let me tell you.

Post up all of your goals somewhere that, you can look at them daily and meditate on them, to give you better focus and concentration.

A great time for doing this is in the morning and then one more time in the evening before going to bed.

Soak it in as best as you can and form a clear picture of yourself reaching your targets and doing it in your mind.

All things are created mentally first, so if you can’t see it, you can’t reach it.

By posting your goals up in your room.

You will unconsciously activate your subconscious mind.

And it will start attracting certain people, coaches, and things into your life, that will help you achieve your goals.

“Your goal with doing this is to make yourself a living magnet for what you want and stop pushing it away”.

Yes, you need to want to reach your goal bad and yes, you will need to put in the work on the court.

But, you can’t be sending out the wrong energy while doing it (like most players do) and I think, this is why they don’t reach their goals.

They push away the exact thing that they want, by working for one thing, but expecting something else.

The power of expectation is what really counts here because what you expect from your efforts will determine how well you perform on the court.

You should never go into a tennis match, feeling like you can’t beat another player.

Winning in your mind is 85% of the mental battle and never forget that tennis is all mental.

We are in June right now, so you need to get serious and think about this.

How many of your goals have you reached this year?

How many are posted up?

Your answer will determine your results.

Use Internal Gears in Bicycles

  1. The system of the gear: After a set of gears is interlocked, it is called a planetary system. As a result, it will help you to ride up on a hill. Or better yet, it will help you go faster on a flat. Based on the condition of the gear, the driver has two options. He can spring first on outer rings. However, the planetary gears may go deeper in the hub. As a result, it gets nearer to the center. All in all, there are all 11 combinations. That means it’s an equivalent of an 11-45 tooth cassette.
  2. Disc-brake on rotors: When working with disc brakes, you are up for an amazing treat. That is because it gives superior stopping and exceptional control. This is most applicable on wet roads or when your bike is densely loaded.
  3. The axle is fixed. The whole system goes around a fixed axle that has three pawls — they are spring-loaded with wedge-shaped pieces of metal. At times, shifting makes specific pawls to prolong the from the axle. Thus, it prohibits a few moving sun gears from spinning.
  4. The cog is critical. Like a free hub body, the one and only external cog of an internal gear hub is attached to a driver unit. Consequently, the labyrinth of great inside the hub turns and uses a clutch to get into different gears.

Now that we know the anatomy of an internal gear, we are aware how to use them. Let us get to a few reasons you need to use an internal gear hub.

  1. Reliable: One of the most substantial advantages of internal gear hub is that all of the moving parts for shifting are sealed in a unit. This is no other than the hub. Also, it means that they are absolutely protected from dirt, grime, road salt and water.
  2. Durability and Maintenance: Do you know that internal gear hubs are not difficult to keep than standard derailleur systems? What you need to do regularly is to keep the suitable tension on your chain and lubricate it regularly.
  3. Shifting: Imagine this ever happening to you: You came to a stop on your bike. You suddenly realized that you are still in too much high of a gear to start in. Worry no more. With the help of an internal gear hub, you can shift gears while stagnant.

Choosing a Mountain Bike

The first question to ask is how much are you willing to spend. It is important to understand that it is not just the cost of the bike. If you are new to cycling, you may also need to buy accessories like a helmet, riding shoes, padded shorts, water bottles, bike rack, and pedals (WAIT… WHAT… My bike won’t come with pedals! In most cases, higher-end bikes do not come with pedals with the assumption that higher-end riders have their own preferences. And if it does come with pedals, they are just the basic pedals that came on your Huffy when you were a kid, and you will want to change them out, anyway).

Assuming you are not just looking to buy a bike from Target, Most Bike Manufacturers offer Mountain Bikes from a few hundred dollars to, in some cases, over $10,000. If you are reading this post, you probably don’t need a $10,000 ride. However, if your budget allows, you may consider spending anywhere between one to three thousand for a bike that you will be able to keep around for a while, as your skill level increases.

The reason prices vary so dramatically is due to the type of components on the bike, and the material the frame is made of. We will get into these later. For now, know what price range you are looking for. No sense in “Jones’ing” for that bike you would need to remortgage your house to even consider.

What type of terrain are you planning to ride and what is your skill-level. This is important because, these days, Mountain Bikes are designed for specific types of riding and conditions.

TRAIL – Most people just getting into Mountain Biking will want to consider a Trail Bike. These are general-purpose bikes that will ride nicely on everything from dirt roads to singletrack. These generally come in hardtail (front suspension) or full-suspension (front and rear suspension)

CROSS-COUNTRY – These Mountain Bikes are fast and nimble. They are for those looking to compete. They ascend and corner well. However, their clearance and build are not suited for technical rock-gardens or jumps

ALL MOUNTAIN – With heavier built frames and beefier and longer suspension, these Mountain Bikes are built for more technical terrain. They are well suited for steep technical downhill. But, due to their relative weight, are not as fast on the ascent as other categories. This can be overcome with carbon frames and lighter components if you are willing to spend the money.

FREERIDE – If you want to just go downhill fast and jump high… this is the ride for you. Think skier on two wheels. People who Freeride, are often hitting the ski slopes during off season, and are being shuttled to the top. Ascending a Freeride bike is not going to be efficient.

FATTY – A fast growing market in the Mountain Bike Arena are bikes with Fat Tires. These were initially designed to be ridden on snow and sand. However, recent designs are equally as comfortable on trails. Similar to a 4×4 with bloated tires, these rides roll over obstacles, and due to more surface area, grip better than traditional MTB tires. They also provide more cushion, minimizing the need for additional suspension (although, some designs still have it). However, this is not a fast bike, and will be extremely inefficient on hard, smooth surfaces.

HARDTAIL – Hardtails are called so due to the fact that they have no suspension in the rear. These are generally cheaper than Full-Suspension bikes. Also, all things being equal, can be more efficient on the ascent.

FULL-SUSPENSION – These bikes have suspension in the front and the rear. This results in a more comfortable ride and reduces fatigue. An other benefit is that, due to less bounce, there is typically more tire contact with the trail. In the past, there was a significant drawback to full-suspension bikes. They were less efficient on the ascent, and one gave up a little control on cornering. These days, these types of bikes provide ways to adjust the amount of suspension (and even lock it out) depending on the conditions you are riding on.

Running Shoes

To make sure you stick with option one, you need to protect your joints. The best way to do this, is to use running shoes, suited to YOUR feet.

All shoes have varying levels of support and, to avoid injuries, this is one of the first considerations you need to think about when choosing a pair of running shoes. As most of us have different support requirements, there is no ONE best running shoe which will work perfectly for everyone.

This fun little Garmin gadget attaches itself to your shoe and measures your running speed and distance. It even notices your stride length changes for accurate distance calculations!

Garmin has developed a great little foot pod gadget to attach to your running shoe or even just your shoe laces, it’s that small. This foot pod will measure your running speed and distance whilst noticing any change in your running strides and report back to you on your forerunner.

Most other pedometers measure distance and speed on a broad basis. The Garmin Foot Pod, on the other hand makes use of MEMS sensor technology which is highly accurate and takes your movement changes into consideration when calculating speed and distance. When your stride changes, the results will reflect these and you can have confidence in an exact running distances and speed.

As the cherry on the top, the sensor also measures your running cadence. By analyzing your running cadence you will be able to approach your goal speed and distance in a realistic manner with and evaluate your progress with measurable results.

Garmin has developed a great little foot pod gadget to attach to your running shoe or even just your shoe laces, it’s that small. This foot pod will measure your running speed and distance whilst noticing any change in your running strides and report back to you on your forerunner.

Most other pedometers measure distance and speed on a broad basis. The Garmin Foot Pod, on the other hand makes use of MEMS sensor technology which is highly accurate and takes your movement changes into consideration when calculating speed and distance. When your stride changes, the results will reflect these and you can have confidence in an exact running distances and speed.

As the cherry on the top, the sensor also measures your running cadence. By analyzing your running cadence you will be able to approach your goal speed and distance in a realistic manner with and evaluate your progress with measurable results.

Ball Position

Initial position

You have to have some guidelines on first placing the ball. There is a very narrow stretch of area suitable for this. This area lies between the left of your left shoulder and the right of your nose. This is more of a matter of precision. Gradually, as you become an experienced golfer, this will come naturally to you.

Use the same position

This is an important trick that not many people will tell you about. This is an effective way to keep control over the distance. No matter what club you are using for your game, ensure that the ball is kept in the same spot. But how do you address the issue of the club length then? All you have to do here is adjust your stance width. Changing stance width and static ball position together will give you good control.

Upper strike? No!

Keep this point carefully in mind. It is a common misconception that a vertical strike is going to help the ball go airborne and thus a father distance. You need a big trajectory, true. But for that, you need a downward stroke that will give the ball more spin. This is a very effective formula, remember this!

Driver club

The driver club is the longest of the lot. How do you deal with this? This requires a game which is played inside the front foot. This gives the ball a bigger trajectory that takes it farther rather than just imparting a downward stroke. Sometimes, it is advisable to move the ball half an inch with every increasing club length.

Choose A Badminton Racket

  • Step 1
    First up is frame construction. According to Hart Sports New Zealand, the most affordable types are made from steel but they do come heavy. Lightweight aluminum rackets offer more control while graphite models are the lightest and should give off excellent speed, handling, and control. Experienced players will find graphite rackets fit for them while beginners ought to start with steel or aluminum.
  • Step 2
    Grip size is also an essential element to the game. Make sure your hand fits around the handle of your racquet choice perfectly by trying it out before you make the purchase. Some shops will give you size measurements advice and letting you try different grip sizes of the same racquet. When in doubt, go for a smaller grip size that you think you need. This is because you can simply add overgrips to increase the size overtime if you find the handle too small for comfort.
  • Step 3
    Balance as well as comfort and fit are also of prime importance. Make sure you visit local badminton clubs to try out several racquet brands to see how you and your racquet fit each other.
  • Step 4
    For string tension, new players need relatively low tension ranging from 15 to 22 lbs. This amount of tensions gives in to every strike, giving you more power. More advanced players who already have their wrist-power already developed will like a 22 to 28 lbs. racquet which gives more accuracy and control.
  • Step 5
    PVC-coated steel strings are the strongest type of strings by their responsiveness is sometimes too low for experienced players. Nylon strings are more likely to break but they do have a higher level of response which allows for more control.
  • Step 6
    The shape of the racquet head is also a factor. KK Racket Exchange Company says that isometric heads feature a relatively square shape thereby increasing the racket’s “sweet spot”. Oval heads have a smaller sweet spot but they do pack more power for seasoned players.
  • Step 7
    Finally, match shaft flexibility to your skill level. Stiff shafts provide better performances via control so they are fit for more advanced or professional players. Flexibility adds speed to every swing, creating more power so new players will definitely need more flexibility from their rackets to generate more speed and power while they are still on the learning curve.

Rock Climbing And Abseiling

Some tours may just be a rock climbing tour where you start the tour at the bottom of the cliff or object you’re wishing to climb and vice versa for abseiling only tours, starting at the top of the cliff.

The question is which adventure should I choose? A rock climb or abseil?

The simple answer would be both if possible. Both of these thrilling adventures take a certain skill or mindset to be carried out and for me personally I prefer to kill two birds with one stone.

Rock climbing will use your physical skills, strength and will test your mental strength too where as abseiling does require skill although the mental barrier here is letting yourself casually fall down the cliff face.

Some people may feel nervous around heights and might not be sure if this adventure is for them. Well not to worry I too get extremely anxious and nervous around open heights and I certainly had doubts when I visited Port Vila Vanuatu where I had organised an abseiling tour.

For this abseiling adventure in Vanuatu we climbed the mountainside to reach the top of a 50 metre waterfall. So not only was I exhausted from the steep hill to reach the top, I was anxious about being 50 metres high and I had to deal with abseiling while a tonne of water was rushing down on top of me.

And even though I had doubts that morning about whether or not I should actually try out this experience, I made it to the bottom safely and wanted to go again and again.
The experience of both rock climbing and abseiling sure is thrilling and an adventure that will live with me personally for my lifetime.

Even though I feel the nerves around heights I want to take up this adventure a few more times and try it out in different locations but more important using both rock climbing and abseiling within the climb.

I’m positive that it will be hard to find an abseiling tour that will top the Mele Cascades in Vanuatu however I do want to head out to some areas near my home town and try it out again. The Blue Mountains is one of the places that offers these climbing adventures as well as many others including caving experiences etc.

Rackets Define Their Sports

With tennis, though, racket technology has vastly altered the game forever. During the 1960’s, for example, average top speeds for first serves hovered around 100 miles per hour. Today, 120 miles per hour and 130 miles per hour are common in most professional matches. Rallies among the world’s best players are lightning fast and this was made possible because these players can strike the ball much harder using spin control that modern racket technology has made possible.

The best players in the world will note that the racket is essentially an extension of the player’s arm. In order for the player to perform at the highest level of his or her game, the racket not only needs to be comfortable and lightweight, but it also needs to be set up ideally for that particular player’s game.

While a beginner in any of these sports might not understand the difference between rackets, control is ultimately the name of the game. Once a player develops some basic skills in striking the ball, it’s important that he or she is able to control the ball effectively. A lighter racket will allow the inexperienced player a better feel since most tend to draw the racket back late, forcing them to rush the swing.

Also, an inexperienced player just starting out or working to hone his or her game more effectively, will tend to gain more control by relying on higher string tension. The type of racket that a player uses will certainly be important, but it’s more about the tension than anything else.

While a player may struggle with control, there are a number of factors that can contribute to this lack of comfort. First, control comes from the player’s feel, which is the grip. Too large of a grip and the player may lose control of the racket. Too small and it could slip easily in his or her grasp. Second is the weight and size of the racket. With a more compact swing, a longer racket will have less of an impact, though each of the sports mentioned have specific requirements for racket length and size.
Last, string type and tension are the most important factors in control. In order to achieve exceptional control, not only must a player practice, but he or she should experiment with various tensions.

The Benefits of One-on-One Training in Football

Practice certainly makes perfect, but there can be more to football practice than just team training and match practice. One-on-one football training can also complement team training and can be beneficial for a football player’s development. In team training, players are, exactly as the name suggests, part of a team and therefore can get lost amongst the crowd, which can leave gaps in development. One-on-one football training can be useful in several areas for players of all abilities.

Image Credit

Introduction to Football

For players just starting out, team training and practice matches can be overwhelming. One-on-one training at this stage can really help players to get to grips with skills so they are more confident when practising and playing with the team.

Mastering and Refining Skills

In a one-on-one setting, players are really able to concentrate on mastering skills and techniques. Practising techniques with football training drill videos can offer the chance to master and refine skills without the defensive pressure of match practice. The core skills and basic techniques outlined by FIFA such as ball control and first touch are all skills that players should spend some time on during one-on-one training to refine them before adding them into team training.

Image Credit

Individually Tailored Training

During team training, the focus is on the team as a whole, and sometimes attention can be more on winning a game than on long-term player development. Time constraints mean that team coaches simply cannot always take the time to focus on each player’s individual needs. One-on-one coaching is very effective in this area, as players are able to focus on their own strengths and weaknesses.

Build Confidence

The confidence that can come from the positive environment of one-on-one training can really boost a player’s development. All-round confidence on the pitch can be built through team training and one-on-one training. Various football training drill videos are available at Sportplan which are useful for players to build confidence in their abilities and transfer these skills on to the pitch for match play.

Advanced-Level Players

Players at an advanced level can really gain an advantage from one-on-one training which targets specific areas of their game, so they are constantly challenged, and their skills are advanced.

Choose Freestyle BMX Bike

Competition for quality and variety is rising rapidly among different manufacturers and suppliers of bikes. Different models of freestyle BMX bikes have touched great heights in delivering high quality performance features. Among a wide range of models and categories, it may be little bit difficult and time consuming to choose the right type of bike. This confusion can sometimes lead to the possibility of selecting the wrong option. Therefore, it is very essential to have sufficient knowledge about certain factors related to freestyle BMX bikes.

In today’s era of great competition, there is no shortage of bikes that deliver highly appreciable quality traits. Beyond the quality factor, there are many other factors that should be considered while buying a freestyle BMX bike. Here are some points that would help the one to choose an apt bike.

Light weight Body Structure

Most of the freestyle BMX bikes are designed with materials like steel and aluminum. Both are undoubtedly cheap but are heavy in weight and less durable. One may prefer to go for bikes that are constructed with chromoly alloy due to its strength, durability, and light weight.

Type of Riding

Different bikes are designed to be suitable for different types of riding disciplines. Some are good to be used over flatland while others are made to be used over dirt. Before choosing a bike, make proper research to know what type of bike would fulfill your riding criteria.

Choose the Shop that Offers Spare Parts and Other Accessories

One should prefer a store for buying a freestyle BMX bike that provides different spare parts like handlebars, pedals, chains, brake cables and many other bike accessories.

Affordable Cost

Cost is also a very important factor that cannot be ignored in any way as it is not possible for everyone to spend large amounts of money so choose a bike with the cost that is within your reach.

Conquer That Fear

Living a sedentary lifestyle create health problems for people such as obesity, cardio respiratory diseases, stress, and diabetes among others. Realizing the need for a more active lifestyle, more people are now getting into health and fitness programs to improve their health conditions and to keep themselves fit.

People who exercise regularly attest that they function much better at work. They are often found to have a better disposition in life. Perhaps it is because of the fact that when people exercise, they do not only sweat off all the toxins and burn all those calories in their body, but they also release all the stresses they experience at home, school, or at work. Through a good cardiovascular workout, the force of oxygen in the brain somehow clears the head, improves blood circulation and thus releasing a lot of those tension in the muscles. One good cardiovascular exercise that you might want to try is outdoor cycling or bike riding.

Cycling is a low impact exercise that does not strain or puts too much pressure on the joints unlike in running, walking, and weight training. This means that with cycling, you can have a longer exercise time which translates to more calories burned than with running or jogging.

However, some people are afraid to try out cycling as exercise. Among their fears include:

· There might not be a bike that can hold me.

· I might look awkward since I am not good in riding a bike.

· I am scared getting on the road.

These issues are not real problems, really. There are bicycles for big riders and bike shops can help you with the bicycle that fits you. When afraid of looking awkward or falling, you can practice riding your bike right within your yard till you get the confidence to ride farther from your house. You may practice at your nearby park where there is less traffic. As you keep on practicing you will find yourself being more confident to ride your bicycle. What’s fun is, you can ride along with your friends and family

Choose A Bicycle For A Child

While buying a bicycle may seem like a no-brainer to most parents, it is an important task and should be given due attention. The main factor to be considered while choosing the right bike for your child is the inseam length – the measurement of the inner leg. This is important because your child needs adequate space between his/her inner leg and the top tube while standing. If the top tube is too close to the intersection of inner leg, there is a chance of getting hurt while getting on and off the bike. This is applicable for adults as well.

More so, as kids get acquainted with bicycles, there are more chances of them taking a tumble here and there. Hence, it is critical to that the ‘stand over height’ is correctly chosen.

So where do parents go wrong in choosing the right bike? The general mentality of parents is to choose a bike that is slightly bigger for the child so that he/she can use it for a few more years (than what would otherwise have to be done away within a shorter span). What they don’t realize is that this is not favorable because the bike’s frame is larger than the child, causing him/her discomfort especially when reaching for the handlebar and the ‘stand over height’ is insufficient. Getting the size of your child’s bike right is crucial – if it’s too big or too small, it will be trickier to ride and could cause an accident.

The following are pointers you can keep in mind while choosing your munchkin’s bike – this corresponds with the child’s age:

• 2 – 4 years: Balance (has no pedals, cranks and brakes, helping the tiny tot balance and steer with minimum distraction) bikes
• 3 – 5 years: 12 inch-wheel bikes
• 4 – 7 years: 16 inch-wheel bikes
• 5 – 10 years: 20 inch-wheel bikes
• 8 – 14 years: 24 inch-wheel bikes
• 11(+) years: 26 inch-wheel bikes

The general rule-of-thumb is that the size of the kid’s bike is ideally determined by the wheels’ diameter (not frame-size like adult bikes). The bicycle should fit the child. All children need to feel safe and comfortable on a bike, whether they admit it or not – they will only make the most of their new wheels if they are confident.

Modern Fencing

We first have to define distance. Distance has been defined as physical distance between the two fencers measured by the extension and whether footwork (the lunge, and advance lunge) is needed to carry that extension of the weapon to target. Given the differences in overall reach, in sabre and epee the advanced target and multiple distances depending on the intended target, and the mobility of opponents, this has never been truly satisfactory. For example, a fencer can be at traditional medium (lunge) distance, but to catch an opponent have to deliver the attack by advance lunge inside the opponent’s response time and OODA loop.

The first change to thinking about modern distance is to reorder distance from further away to closer to the target. We do not start attacks at short distance with an extension. We have to get to the distance at which the extension can hit.

Second, there are two sets of distances, your and your opponent’s, and multiple subsets in epee and sabre, based on the target attacked and the target defended.

Third, we must include the opponent’s tactical intention in the equation. An attack met by the opponent collapsing the distance is no longer at lunge distance, and actually never was given the tactical intent of the two fencers.

Fourth, we need to use actual tempo as a determinant of the distance. An attack with an advance-lunge, even a fast accelerating advance lunge, is a two tempo action and inherently takes longer, and is thus tactically slower than an attack with a lunge. This is regardless of how the rules define an advance lunge for right of way purposes.

And finally, there are three special cases. Counteroffense occurs within a tempo. Infighting distance and passing distance are two special cases in which the action occurs regardless of tempo (infighting) and as an expanding tempo (passing).

So what is a better approach? The old division into 3 or 5 distances is less relevant in modern fencing than an approach based on the fluidity of action. I suggest distances that are actual envelopes of space and time:

Preparation distance – distance at which preparatory foot and blade work are required to get to the distance at which you can expect to hit the mobile opponent in a two tempo action (with tempo being defined actually as the time to complete a simple blade or footwork action regardless of how the rules define tempo for right of way purposes).

Two tempo distance – distance at which you can hit the opponent on the desired target with a two tempo attack. This may be the old out of distance if the opponent is stepping forward or the medium distance if the opponent can be expected to retreat under attack. For the defender, this is the distance at which either blade preparation or the final action can be defeated and in which the defender’s action can control the tempo required for the riposte.

One tempo distance – the distance where a one tempo blade action or combined one tempo blade and footwork action can result in a hit. This can be anywhere in the old advance-lunge or lunge distances. For the defender this is the envelope to defeat the final attack or the distance at which the advanced parry intercepts the early development of the attack.

Inside tempo or counteroffense distance – the distance at which the fencer under attack can hit with counteroffense. With fast footwork this can be anywhere in the attacker’s two or one tempo distances. The defender is operating literally within one of the attacker’s tempos.

Infighting distance – the distance at which tempo is largely irrelevant, the action is confused with multiple attempts to place the blade, and unusual attitudes are required to reach the target.

Passing distance – the opening distance as the opponent is past the defender and in which the referee’s assessment of the immediacy of the defender’s attempt to hit becomes the dominant factor as to whether there the hit is allowed.

This approach requires a good tactical understanding of both the attacker’s and the defender’s courses of action by both fencers, identifies the category of actions each will need, accounts for both fencers’ movement, and sequences the distances in the actual flow of the bout to start where the action starts. It is not something you teach in a beginner’s class. However, for intermediate and advanced fencers it should make distance more relevant, not just something you read about in the first chapter of a fencing manual.

Boxing Combinations

Purpose of Boxing Combinations

Boxing combinations are designed to maximize the vulnerabilities opened by patterns of punches, and to use your own weight and balance from one punch to generate power for subsequent punches.

Shifting Weight in Combinations

A primary element in forming boxing combinations is your weight transfer. As discussed in the basics of boxing punches, many punches involve a transfer of weight from left to right, and a twist of the hips and upper body.

Instead of resuming our guard after twisting right, we can alternatively use that weight on the right to feed a new twist to the left. For example, you throw a left hook, which transfers weight from left to right, followed by a right hook, which then takes that weight on the right and transfers it back to the left.

Basic boxing Combinations

The following are some basic boxing combinations. These combinations are explained for orthodox (right-handed) fighters. If you are a southpaw (left-handed) fighter, the motions are reversed (a three becomes a right hook not a left hook).

1-2 (Jab-Cross)

The old 1-2 is the staple boxing combination and is often used as part of larger more complex combinations. It is both fast, and can be powerful.

When throwing a 1-2, your cross should extend at the same time that your jab is recoiling. Make sure that when a hand isn’t extended it should be guarding your head.

1-2-3 (Jab-Cross-Left hook)

Follow the 1-2 with a left hook and you have a 1-2-3. Often an opponent might be occupied or slow in reacting to your cross, which leaves the side of their face wide open for a hook.

At the end of your cross, your hips and shoulders should have twisted to bring your back shoulder forward. Use this position as the beginning weight-transfer for your hook. With your body already pivoted, raise your front elbow and throw your hook as your back hand recoils from the cross.

2-3-2 (Cross-Left hook-Cross)

This combinations heavily relies on weight transfer.

Like in the 1-2-3, you throw a hook using the already pivoted position that resulted from a cross. But this time, as your cross twists your body and transfer weight to the right, you use that point as the starting position for another cross.

Visualize your right shoulder coming forward with a cross, the left hook rotating your right shoulder back into it’s original position, ready for it to return once more with another cross. Lots of power is generated from the hips in this combination.

3-2-3 (Left hook-Cross-Left hook)

This is exactly like the 2-3-2 but with hooks at the start and end.

Throw a hook, which pulls your right shoulder back as a result of the hips/shoulder twist, then rotate with a powerful cross which puts you right back in position to throw another left hook.

3-6-3 (Left hook-Right uppercut-Left hook)

The 3-6-3 catches many opponents off guard because they might be expecting a 3-2-2 and because the punches come from both high and low.

Throw a left hook, and then when your weight is on your right/back shoulder dip your waist to the right, raise your back heel, and throw a right uppercut. The uppercut should leaves shoulders open – in perfect position to return another left hook.

Mixing It Up

Basic combinations can be changed and tweaked in many ways. Here are several ways that you can get more out of these combinations:

  • Since you don’t typically want to lead with a cross, throw a jab prior to a 2-3-2. This makes 1-2-3-2.
  • Throw a variable number of jabs before or after a combination. This makes a 1-2 into a 1-1-2 or a 1-2-1-1
  • Throw a jab before a left hook to catch an opponent off guard with two left handed punches.
  • Mix up high and low punches. Try 3-6-3 where the first hook is low and the second is high, or reversed.
  • Combine combinations. An example is 1-2-3-2 or 1-2-3-6-3 or 1-2-1-2

Most Common Types Of Bikes

Mountain

Mountain bikes are designed for off-road riding. They have multiple gears for riding up and down hills, paths, washes, and trails of varying inclines. To deal with the sand, dirt, mud, and gravel commonly encountered off-road, these models are equipped with wide tires with knobs to provide greater traction. Rather than curved handlebars, mountain handlebars are generally straight. The rider generally sits upright while riding this style.

Hybrid

Hybrid bikes are probably the most common style seen today. They are a combination of mountain and road bicycles, making them well suited for multiple terrain types. The handlebars are straight and the seating position is upright, just like a mountain model. The frame will usually be lightweight, the tires narrower and smoother, which makes for smoother, easier rides on pavement. As with the two styles it has evolved from, a hybrid usually has multiple gears.

BMX

BMX (bicycle motocross) bicycles are very popular with stunt riders, certain types of off-road racers, and youths. The BMX style is generally for a smaller frame bike, built robustly to handle hard landings and other stunts. The front wheel and handlebars can be rotated 360 degrees to allow for tricks, and the models will only have one gear. Due to the smaller nature of the frames, riders will generally stand while pedaling.

Cruiser

Cruiser models are designed for ease of use and a comfortable ride. As a result, they are popular with adult riders who are new to riding, or only do so occasionally. Cruisers offer an upright seating position and a fixed gear, so the rider simply has to sit down and start pedaling. Their wide tires make them comfortable. Due to their heavy steel frames and single gear, they are generally rather slow compared to most other types.

Started With Biking

Determination to Pursue Cycling. It is normal to be hesitant to get on that bike and worry about what people might say or how you would look. Don’t fret. Most experienced heavy riders attest that such feeling won’t last. All you have to do is to have that determination to get on that bike and pedal your way to good health. You can conquer that fear however, you might want to take that first step.

Choose a bike that fits. The first thing you might want to consider is getting a bike that fits. You may consult your local bike shop for bike fitting. Giving the bicycle a test ride to see how comfortable you are riding it would be a good idea.

Start with flat terrain. You may want to start out riding through flat terrains in your yard, neighborhood street or the park area. Carefully plan your route so you would be biking along paths you are confident you can tackle. Then as you gain your confidence you can start biking with uphill terrain but a level higher at a time.

Practice getting on and off the bike. Among the fears of a beginner cyclist is the awkwardness of getting on and getting off the bike. You may want to practice this in your yard till you gain the confidence to do so outside.

Practice using gears. It may be an advantage if you become familiar with the gears on your bicycle and know when and how to use them. You may consult an experienced rider or your local bike shop for advice. You can practice using the gears on your bike at a nearby park. When you are confident with your riding, you can ride farther and enjoy the benefits of cycling outdoors.

Becoming An Elite Tennis Player

Commitment To Excellence

The top players train their mind, bodies and spirit everyday.

Through this daily training, they are able to strengthen all 3 at the same time!!

The key factor being.

How they train.

They train at a high level, even when they aren’t feeling good, and this is the sign of an elite player, who is determined to be the best they can be.

How about you?

Do you train and give your all in practice everyday?

Clearly Define Goals.

Your tennis goals need to be written down on paper and posted up for you to see and picture daily to yourself.

You also need to keep writing them down and rewriting them in present tense.

This create the clarity that you need when working on your goals.

Question.

How often do you write down your tennis goals?

Play To Win.

The top tennis players play to win all the time.

They never even enter a tennis match, until they have won that match in their minds first!!

This allows them to pre-program themselves for victory on the court.

Because they have already won the match mentally, they are more mentally stronger under pressure.

“Elite players expect and demand the very best from themselves, in every match that they play in and it doesn’t matter who their opponent is across the net”.

The powerful thing about this mindset in competition is,

You can lose a match and still walk off the court, feeling like a winner and that is a powerful feeling to have after a lost!!

Beat The Street Fighter With Boxing

In any sort type of fighting style, knowing all you can know and being prepared is usually what it all comes down to. In boxing, knowing how to stand properly and throw a punch properly will greatly increase one’s chances of a win. Knowing the different kinds of jabs as well and blocking properly are also techniques that come in handy. Stamina and focus is what seems to really separate the great boxers from the not so great ones, the mentality and smarts to wear down their opponent. Great boxers have the capability to make it look effortless – this should be what one is trying to achieve!

Another great tip that can be offered is that not only knowing the proper boxing techniques will help one win but also knowing about the opponents fighting style will give you the upper hand. This will allow one to be more prepared, than or as prepared as they could be if caught off guard in any situation. Focusing on one fighting style and mastering it can take years but knowing the basics of other fighting styles and how to defend against their attacks is equally as important.

With street fighting, one has to be more aware about the use of weapons or the opponent fighting “dirty.” Most street fighters pretty much maintain the mentality of doing what they can to win the fight or getting what they want. They are not concerned about a fair match up; they are looking to really hurt someone. With boxing, one may really hurt the opponent but of course this is not the main goal! This is really something one should keep in mind.

Unfortunately most street fights that are encountered are not planned out and just occur. A well trained boxer should definitely be able to handle this situation properly without really getting hurt or hurting the other person either. Bottom line is, no matter how good one thinks they are someone is always better. So there is always room for improvement and knowledge is the power that helps every fighter, win, their matches.

Buying Clipless Bike Pedals

Toe cages and strap fundamentally serve a similar purpose. This pedals style secures your shoe a bit more firmly onto the pedal providing certain ability to push and pull through a pedal cycle. The benefits of this type pedal include the ability to wear virtually any shoe eliminating need for special bike shoes, easy entry and exit from the cage or strap so the learning curve is minimal. These style pedals have very little additional maintenance if any.

Clipless pedals are a great indication you have evolved into a serious rider. Most cited reasons for using this style pedal are aligned with improved performance like speed or distance. If you are debating the pros and cons of using this style pedal then be mindful of the learning curve you’ll go need to go through to correctly use a clipless pedal system.

Observing many cyclists over the past year, I found a majority of the cyclists experienced a small spill at the beginning of their clipless pedal phase. My first incident occurred as I was approaching a red light while rolling less than five-mile per hour. As I approached the light and un-clipping my right shoe which is my typical foot I put down first at a stop. What I failed to notice was the slope in the road leaning my center of gravity to the left. Not realizing this until too late, I panicked and tried to pull my shoe out vertically which doesn’t work. Down I went meeting Mr. Asphalt. No sustained injuries occurred other than shredded pride as I looked like a total goof. For those cars near by inexperienced in clipless pedals wondering why would a rider keep his foot on the pedal?! Thankfully the cars were a safe distance from me. I had a heck of a time getting vertical again as my shoe was still engaged in the pedal and I was tangled with the bike.

This is a typical scenario you should be prepared for when starting out with a clipless pedal. The need to disengage immediately should be practiced in a driveway or a safe area. Become comfortable with removing both feet out of your pedals quickly and minimize the chance of an accident. Don’t be surprised when a riding situation requires a quick response and a panic sets in trying to pull your foot up instead of the required heel pivot.

Choose The Crossbow Case

Crossbows, with its growing popularity among outdoors hobbyists, are not cheap. Although one can buy a crossbow for less than a few hundred bucks, accessories such as arrows, broadheads and cocking devices do add up. A broken crossbow will render these accessories useless, so taking care of the crossbow is very important.

A great way to protect your crossbow is to invest in a good case. Crossbow cases should be part of the shopping list for anyone from starters to the more experienced hunter. Hunting usually requires one to travel to remote, rugged locations, so you need something to protect your crossbow bumps and falls.

Soft cases versus hard cases

Crossbow cases come in different varieties but most prefer soft cases. They’re versatile and most are considered universal, not made for a specific crossbow or brand. Soft cases are stretchable enough to accommodate other accessories and most even have multiple pockets to carry broadheads and cocking devices. And they are usually padded and made from light-weight materials. The padding helps to protect your bow from damage but since they are flexible, it cannot prevent your bow from bending or breaking. Thus, soft cases are best for archers who use their bows often, because they are quite light, and you can hand-carry your bow anywhere with you.

Hard cases, on the other hand, can offer maximum protection for your beloved bow. Like soft cases, the insides are also padded with foam or felt-like materials, so scratching is also virtually impossible. However, hard cases have hard outer shells which give you more protection. These cases won’t easily bend, and dropping the crossbow will not be a problem since the case will absorb the impact. Storing your bow in a hard case will make sure that your crossbow is safe from virtually anything. So, it is perfect for storing or long distance travelling.

How to Choose the Perfect Crossbow Case

Choosing the right case is pretty easy. In fact, the only technical consideration, if it ever does become an issue, is the make and brand of your bow. Everything else is your personal preference. Also, there are many types of materials to choose from. If you want to get a soft case, make sure you get something made of plastic as they are weather proof and won’t easily tear if it gets caught on a tree or any sharp object. In getting a hard case, an aluminum shell is best since it is the lightest. Also, make sure to get a case with thicker padding. Ensuring the best fit for your crossbow will prevent it from moving inside the case because the impact between your crossbow and the case itself can also damage it.

Importance of Body Shots

There are three very important reasons to use body shots. The first is taking away your opponents’ legs, or slow him down. Your opponent will be covering his face, body shots will surprise them and get them off balance, and this takes away their legs. Once you have taken away their legs, you have them in a position to knock them out or at least gain points with the judges.

The next reason to use this type of punch is so your opponent brings his hands down to block his body thereby leaving the head wide open for a knockout. After a proper body shot your opponent will lower their hands, with the perfect head shot you can score a knock out. You would be using this to set up the knockout punch, the ultimate in boxing. You can use hooks or uppercuts all in combination with each other. When the uppercut lands in just the perfect spot, the solarplexis, this will knock the wind right out of your opponent leaving them wide open for the knockout to the head.

The last reason is just absolute punishment that the body takes which then breaks the will of your opponent. How does this break down your opponent? They are confused; they don’t know whether to cover their head or their body, they are worn out from the constant defense. Punches to the body thrown at close range are much safer than the long distance body shots. Long distance shots leaves you wide open to be counter punched. You can use body shots at close range. When you are in the pocket, your punches need to be short and precise with a lot of power behind them. The key to this is bending your knees while coming forward. By doing this you are dominating your opponent, again scoring points with the judges. Not all fights end with a knockout, but you will definitely gain confidence with the judge’s decisions. Overall, you just have to be relentless as an amateur and a professional fighter.