Basic Skills Used in Volleyball

Serving – Every play in volleyball starts with the serve. It is the only skill of the game which is completely in the control of the individual player. The serve may be executed either from a standing position or while jumping. The two primary types are float serves, which are hit with no spin so as to knuckle in the air, and top spin serves, which are struck so as to cause the ball to dip down toward the end of its flight.

Passing – Passing is the act of directing a ball coming from the other team in the form of either a serve or other non-attack form of play toward the net where it can be set. Quite often these passes are executed using the forearms (sometimes known as bumping), but they can also be done overhead (at least in the indoor game).

Setting – After a ball is passed (or dug) on the first contact, a second one is used to provide an attackable ball to a hitter. This set is usually executed overhand in the indoor game, though can also be accomplished using a forearm pass. You will see the latter – generally referred to as a bump set – in the beach game quite often where the restrictions on ball-handling are somewhat tighter.

Hitting – Also known as spiking, hitting is the process of attacking the ball into the opponents court. The objective is to score a point by causing the ball to land on the floor or to be played out of bounds by a defending player. This is generally accomplished by jumping and hitting the ball above the height of the net with a downward trajectory.

Blocking – The first line of defense against a hitter is the block. In blocking, a player (or players) attempt to prevent the ball from being played into their court by stopping it from crossing the net at the point of attack. This is executed by jumping very near the net and extending the arms above the head, and into the opponents side of the court for those with the height and/or jumping ability to do so.

Digging – Executed in a similar fashion to passing, digging is the handling of an attacked ball. It can be done either using a forearm pass or overhead, though generally speaking the ball is coming at a more rapid pace than in the case of normal passing. The idea, however, is the same in terms of playing the ball in the direction of the net to then be set.

Basketball Drills

If you want to become a great basketball player you need to work on more than what you’re already good at. Your biggest and fastest improvements in basketball will come from working on things that you’re not so good at.

So if your weak hand isn’t very good, you should be working on basketball drills that focus on your weak hand. If your shooting needs work, you should focus on that. If your ball handling needs improvement you should do drills for that, etc.

You’ll see much bigger and faster improvements in areas that you’re currently weak at than the areas you’re already good at. Also, by improving on these weaknesses you’ll have very few “holes” in your game, making you a better all around basketball player that is much more difficult to guard and much more valuable to your coach and team.

Effective Basketball Drills

The second thing to consider is the quality of the drills. For this you need to look at both the drill itself and how it applies to you. A few questions you’ll want to ask are:

Is the drill effective?

Is it challenging for you or getting you results?

Does the drill work on one of my weaknesses?

You’ll want most drills to be challenging in order to see improvement, but realize that some drills can still benefit you greatly even though they don’t seem difficult. Also, once again, you’ll also want to look at whether or not the drill is working on improving one of your weaknesses in basketball or not.

Which Drills I Recommend

These are some of the drills that I’ve found to be most beneficial for shooting:

  • 1 hand form shooting under the basket
  • getting repetitions of shooting in off the dribble going both left and right
  • getting in repetitions of catching and shooting
  • standing near the basket and working on changing body positions and hitting different points on the backboard to bank the shot in

Some of my favorite ball handling drills include:

  • spider dribble
  • low crossovers at maximum speed
  • working on game specific moves and driving to the basket
  • almost any 2 ball dribbling drills
  • any ball handling drill that forces you to stay low

Post Up Tennis Goals

Most junior players don’t reach their tennis goals because they are not posted up and in blindsight, for them to look at.

Out of sight, out of mind, is real, let me tell you.

Post up all of your goals somewhere that, you can look at them daily and meditate on them, to give you better focus and concentration.

A great time for doing this is in the morning and then one more time in the evening before going to bed.

Soak it in as best as you can and form a clear picture of yourself reaching your targets and doing it in your mind.

All things are created mentally first, so if you can’t see it, you can’t reach it.

By posting your goals up in your room.

You will unconsciously activate your subconscious mind.

And it will start attracting certain people, coaches, and things into your life, that will help you achieve your goals.

“Your goal with doing this is to make yourself a living magnet for what you want and stop pushing it away”.

Yes, you need to want to reach your goal bad and yes, you will need to put in the work on the court.

But, you can’t be sending out the wrong energy while doing it (like most players do) and I think, this is why they don’t reach their goals.

They push away the exact thing that they want, by working for one thing, but expecting something else.

The power of expectation is what really counts here because what you expect from your efforts will determine how well you perform on the court.

You should never go into a tennis match, feeling like you can’t beat another player.

Winning in your mind is 85% of the mental battle and never forget that tennis is all mental.

We are in June right now, so you need to get serious and think about this.

How many of your goals have you reached this year?

How many are posted up?

Your answer will determine your results.

Bowling for an Effective Spin

That sudden curve of the ball will cause it to spin on its axis. It will continue to do so until it comes in contact with the bowling pins. A spinning bowling ball will roll down the lane just like a ball that isn’t spinning. The change comes when it starts to make a slight tilt when it gets close to the end of the lane and then alters course. Before you can learn to hook your shots you must first learn how to spin the ball.

  1. You have to have patience and skill to learn how to do a powerful spin. The correct kind of ball is also important. Generally, all bowling balls have the ability to spin on their axis when you release it. Keep in mind that if the reason you’re trying to hook the ball is because you’re trying to known down a few scattered pins you will need either a reactive resin or urethane bowling ball. What is the reason for this? Bowling balls covered with a urethane or reactive resin cover stock are more capable of gripping the dry area of the bowling lane than plastic balls are. It is extremely difficult to throw hooks using plastic balls, but it is possible. It can be very frustrating, especially for an accomplished bowler.
  2. t is important to learn how to release the bowling ball while you are still in motion toward the foul line. Some bowlers will stop for a fraction of a second before their release. There really isn’t anything wrong with this approach, but it is much easier to spin the ball if you are still in a forward motion. That little bit of extra momentum will help your bowling ball to spin on its axis.
  3. Make sure to grip your bowling ball in such a way that you can release it easily. You should also make sure to develop a delivery that keeps your arm straight during both the forward and backswings. You don’t want to “muscle” the ball too much during the release or the downswing. Your body’s momentum as you move forward is the best kind. According to the laws of physics, as long as you are still in motion, that same motion will be transferred to your bowling ball.
  4. To make the perfect hook shot just pivot your hand or your wrist just before the final release of your bowling ball. Pretend like you’re turning a key to the three o’clock position. Release the ball just as you rotate your hand and there you have it. The perfect hook shot!

Improve Your Bike Commute

  1. Get a bike. You don’t need a high-end road bike, or even a new bike, to ride to work. What you do need is something that is safe, comfortable and suits your circumstances. Feel free to dust off your old mountain bike in garage, or hunt around some online classifieds. But, if you find something old or used, it might be worth having a bike mechanic give it a quick tune. It doesn’t take much to get a bike in working order-and you can always invest more later on. I bought my bike a few years ago. It’s a flat-bar hybrid with lots of gears. I didn’t bother investing in a superlight frame, as my daily lunch and clothes-plus fenders, lights, paniers, etc.-weighs me down anyway. The result is a hearty bike that’s comfortable, carries all my gear and rides well on almost any city road. With any type of bike, it’s worth planning proper security. At home, I park in a secure underground area-making sure to lock my frame and both wheels to a solid bike rack. At work, I bring my bike into the office where there’s very little risk for theft. The only time I leave it unattended in a public space is in front of a grocery store-where I’m careful to lock it securely and remove all components.
  2. Dress for weather. I’ll admit to being a bit of a fair-weather rider. I haven’t spent much time cycling in the rain or in the dark, and I’ve rarely ridden during the coldest winter months. My first bike commute this year took place March 1. It was early for me. Temperatures were just above freezing, and the shift in Daylight Savings the following week left me cycling in the dark each morning. I learned quickly to dress for warmth. The first part of my ride is mostly downhill, which means I don’t have the opportunity to warm up. When it’s cold, a pair of long underwear under some light pants make for better temperature control, and a shirt with a high neck helps protect vulnerable skin from sharp winds. A light hood also fits beneath my helmet when it’s cold and tucks into my collar when it’s warm. Gloves are a great addition all-year round-although, especially when it’s freezing or wet outside; good blood circulation and grip are important for competent braking and shifting between gears. I also keep a light rain jacket handy at home, and make sure to pack it when the forecast calls for wet weather. It’s light and breathable and doesn’t keep me completely dry-but it’s much better than being soaked to the bone. I always assume I’ll arrive to work either doused in mud or bogged down in sweat. To avoid a hypothermic and soggy day at work, I bring a full change of clothes and a towel. I also keep a spare set of shoes and all my hygiene supplies at my work desk. To make sure my clothes, lunch and anything else I bring to work doesn’t get wet, I also ride with waterproof paniers. They’re a bit more pricy, but if you live in a place where it rains a lot, well worth the money.
  3. See and be seen. Being (or not being) visible is my biggest concern on the road. I always pack at least two lights-one front, one rear-in my bag for riding in the dark. When I first bought them, the guy at the shop asked me, “Do you need to see or be seen?” At the time, it was obvious: I needed both. In hindsight, seeing has not been an issue when it’s dark. I typically ride on city streets, where there is plenty of illumination from streetlights, vehicle headlights, storefronts and other public lighting. The illumination from my headlamp is hardly noticeable. It’s a much different situation when riding dark trails or rural roads at night-and if this is the case, I recommend using several lights for a wider field of vision. Where I really value having lights is in being more visible to traffic. I always ride with both lights, front and back, set to a quick, attention-grabbing strobe. Eye protection was also something I never considered when I first started biking to work. I’ve since come to value wearing glasses in the city and especially during dry dusty summers. They’re a huge help in keeping dust and dirt particles out of the eyes-and avoiding red itchiness that can last for days. Eye protection can also keep the rain from flying in your eyes when it’s wet. Most of the time I ride with just a set of prescription glasses, but I’ve considered buying some wrap-around glasses or goggles.

Indoor Wall Climbing

What then is the physical extent of this adventurous workout? Indoor climbing focuses on a person’s whole body, but puts more weight on one’s hands and forearms – which are the areas often neglected during regular workouts. These two body parts are usually the first to become tired and exhausted. You might be surprised, even for a fitness bum, by the feeling of exhaustion after the first few minutes of the workout.

Burns much more calories than any ordinary workout

According to studies, both indoor and outdoor wall climbing spend a whooping 970 calories per hour but it is dependent on the person’s gender and height. Even the rappelling down sheds 700 calories an hour – an estimated total of 1670 calories burned after the entire up-and-down exercise.

Makes you flex your muscles

The first few climbing sessions can be brutal, especially if you are not that flexible enough. But indoor climbing changes that after those first sessions, forcing you to keep up with gravity and work your muscles so hard your range of motion will speed up. You will be amazed as to how flexible your hips and shoulders will be after enjoying the workouts.

Boosts your brain power

If you think climbing is all physical, you thought wrong. Thinking is as basic as having to stretch your arms to reach the next stone. You need to figure out which is the best way in getting to the top with minimal moves to store up energy. This then increases your skills in problem-solving and hand-eye coordination – two skills not commonly seen in standard workout moves.

Quality Fight Gear

Fight Gloves

There different types of fight gloves but mainly boxing gloves and MMA Gloves are the most commonly used. For both types of gloves there are three types of material used to make these gloves. Leather, Synthetic Leather and Rexene.


Leather is considered to be the highest quality material being used to boxing gloves. But there are two types of leather used in boxing gloves, cowhide leather and buffalo leather. What’s the difference between them? Difference is that cowhide leather is looks shiny and feels smooth as compare to buffalo leather. But leather is not only the part which makes the gloves known for its quality. But real thing is the mould (Inside the Gloves) it should be flexible enough so that it could absorb punch pressure. And I would say that quality seekers should only use gloves with latex hand mould gloves.

Synthetic Leather

I grade synthetic leather 2nd quality for fight gear. Its mainly called PU. Gloves made with PU material give smooth and comfortable grip. I prefer PU mostly in MMA Gloves. But here again PU is not only which will make a high quality gloves it’s the mould. And in Mixed Martial Arts gloves the most important is the thickness of the mould. I would prefer 6 MM Eva mould made of PU as a prefect gloves.


Rexene is also a famous material used for gloves. Its not durable as leather and synthetic leather. But still you can find so many gloves made of this material as this material is cheap so I guess maybe people dispose them after a short use so that they can buy new. I think its better to spend money once and enjoy its worth as once used gloves means you are used to with those gloves.

Balanced Nutrition


Protein is used in most body functions and is fundamental to muscle repair and muscle building. Protein is broken down to amino acids. There are 20 amino acids needed to repair and rebuild muscle. These can be found in foods such as turkey, tuna, beef, chicken, cheese and soya foods. In other foods such as beans, legumes and grains, there are incomplete proteins meaning that not all amino acids needed for muscle repair are contained in these foods. The recommended protein consumption is 1.3/1.4g of protein per kilo of bodyweight. Protein is not stored in the body so needs to be consumed on a regular basis.

As a rough guide, the following are the protein content of some of the better protein sources:

Meat, chicken & fish (cooked) 1 oz: 7g
Eggs – 1: 7g
Nuts ¼ cup: 7g (approx)
Peanut butter 2 Tbsp: 7g
Hard cheese 1 oz: 7g


Fats can have numerous different health benefits. There are several different types of fat:

Polyunsaturated fat (found in fish, eggs, nuts) is important for nerve transmission and decreases inflammation (muscles can inflame after training sessions from strenuous exercise)

Monounsaturated fat (found in tomatoes, olives, avocadoes) is good for heart health and helps reduce cholesterol

Saturated fat (found in red meat, dairy products, fried food) protects some organs. Only small amounts of this are required

Other important fats are the fatty acids Omega 3 and Omega 6 (found in fish, grass fed beef, seeds, nuts, eggs). The potential health benefits of Omega 3 and 6 are improved immune system, reduced inflammation and improved heart health. It is also thought that too much Omega 6 consumption can interfere with the potential benefits of Omega 3.

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Carbohydrates are the main energy source for endurance sports. There are a vast amount of carbohydrate sources and picking the right source is crucial to get the best out of your diet and nutrition for race performance. Generally speaking natural sources of carbohydrates (oats, brown rice, sweet potato, fruit, veg) are preferable as they are whole foods and have more nutritional value. Natural sources of carbohydrates are usually complex carbohydrates or starchy foods.

Processed foods with high sugar content can cause spikes in insulin levels which can lead to inflammation in the digestive system (for general health and nutrition, processed foods should be kept to a minimum). Processed foods contain sugars which are known as simple carbohydrates.

Natural sources of carbohydrate are more beneficial for training nutrition as they provide a slower, more consistent energy release. Pre training nutrition and diet should be complex carbohydrates as they provide a gradual energy release. Simple carbohydrates are more beneficial during a race or immediately after.

In terms of quantities, the recommended amounts of carbohydrate consumption is 6-7 grams per kilo of bodyweight depending on level of training – 6g for athletes training less than 2 hrs per day and 7 for athletes training over 2 hrs per day.

Innovations in Bike Accessories

Built-in Front and Rear Lights

Lights are important bike accessories for cyclists who ride in the dark. However, these lights can create clutter on the handlebars. It’s also possible to lose them due to theft and damage. Instead of using auxiliary lighting, consider installing handlebars with built-in front and rear lights. These lights are less obtrusive, and they are less likely to be damaged. Some designs even have built-in GPS and speedometer abilities. Choose from multi-color bulbs for added features.

Computer-Controlled Suspension

Hitting bumps and potholes on the bike is never pleasant. Some cycle designs have featured computer-controlled suspension, but it’s never been available as a separate accessory. Convert an existing fork to a computer-controlled design. An integrated accelerometer will be able to detect and immediately adjust to cushion you against jolts and jars.

Frame-Mounted Locking System

When it’s time to secure your bicycle, an innovative frame-mounted locking system will keep it safe from theft. This specific type of lock mounts directly to the frame and enables you to lock it wirelessly with an app for your smartphone. A special detector in the program will alert you if the bicycle moves while it’s locked. You will get a notification if someone cuts the cable. A piercing alarm will interrupt the theft while you get an emergency notification sent to your phone. You can even track your cycle’s whereabouts with a GPS tracking chip.

Hand-Crank for More Power

Extra power is never a bad thing. Imagine pumping yourself up the steepest hills in record speed, thanks to a hand crank on your handlebars. Adding an arm to your power will not only increase your speed, but it will also increase your workout. You can work arm muscles in addition to working your legs.

Handlebar-Mounted GPS

Instead of using your smartphone’s GPS system to navigate cycling trips, install a handlebar-mounted GPS. The simple display enables you to track your progress, anticipate turns, and note when you will arrive at your destination. These low-profile GPS gadgets keep clutter to a minimum on handlebars.

Ceramic Bearings for Bicycling

Every cyclist would prefer to use less energy to go faster, but is the extra expense worth it? That may be solely up to the particular cyclist. They should question where the advantage of speed comes from. It could be from any of the following:

  • Reduction of rolling resistance – balls are ground rounder, smoother and more uniformly than steel, allowing them to carry close to the same load.
  • Increased durability and stiffness
  • Reduced weight

Another bonus is that ceramic bearings are harder than steel variations, and they are more durable, lasting up to 20 times longer, and offering minimal risk of seizure. Luckily they don’t rust and are not very sensitive to lubrication and moisture. Some ceramic bearings even require zero lubricant, which is a huge benefit. It reduces maintenance time, and prevents failure.

Ceramic balls and the “racetracks” on which they run are also more stiff than those of steel bearings. This means less flexibility within the bottom bracket. As a result, ceramic bearings are lighter and much less dense than steel. Put them together with good lubrication and proper seals to get much less friction.

Types of Ceramic Bearings

No ceramic bearing is made exactly the same, just like steel bearings they come in various levels of rolling resistance and smoothness so do ceramic. There are two types of ceramic bearings, they are full ceramic and hybrid types. Gradations are based on uniformity and the smoothness of the raceways and balls.

Hybrid Ceramic Bearings – Hybrid ceramic bearings feature ceramic balls with steel races. The weight difference makes them lighter, and they roll faster because the bearings are more uniform in size, harder, smoother and rounder. The racetrack itself is smoother as well.

Full ceramic bearings – These bearings feature both ceramic balls and ceramic races. Because of the ceramic tracks, the entire assembly is lighter. Faster rolling, more durability and minimal sensitivity to moisture makes them a great choice.

Different types of ceramics are used in bearings, and many work perfectly in bicycles. There are many choices when it comes to which would be optimal. Silicon nitride and Zirconia are a couple of the most common types of ceramic sought after by cycling enthusiasts. There are also various levels of seals one can obtain. They have different prices of course, and those are based on supply and demand which has been high in the cycling world.

The bottom line when it comes to bicycling bearings is that the main draw is with Ceramic Speed bearings. As far as historically, they were traded within the professional circuit for many years before being a hit on the market. The majority of expert cyclists still turn to this type when buying their own bearings. They can be found in a complete wheel package at retail outlets and online. Other popular purchases are derailleur pulleys, whole bottom brackets and bottom bracket bearings.

Create An Impenetrable Defense

How does one go about creating and impenetrable defense? There basically are three major key points, those are: moving the head, blocking any punches thrown, and fancy footwork. By fancy footwork, this means defensive footwork, footwork goes along with the importance of maintaining a proper stance throughout the entirety of the match.

Some people may find it difficult to pick one technique and go with it. It may not immediately work to one’s advantage but it is so easy to get wrapped up in trying to impress every one with numerous techniques and in turn having the adverse effect. A brief explanation of the three points is below.

Moving your head back and forth has literally got to be the simplest way to protect yourself in a match. It does not matter how great of a striker the opponent is, if you move your head, they are bound to miss contact with the punch they threw. The head should certainly not stay in the same spot long enough to become an easy target for the opponent. One important tip to remember, is no matter how tired you may become throughout the match, keep your head moving until the fight is over. This will definitely save you in the long run.

Deflecting punches or catching them is a great way to block during a boxing match. Keeping your hands up and watching where the opponent is throwing their punches throughout the match will help also. Watching your opponent and being there where he tries to make contact will throw a monkey wrench in their game plan but also give you the upper hand and allow you to set up for a great counter attack.

Just like your head, you want to move your feet as well. Dance around the ring do not just stay in one spot. It is important to maintain a proper stance during this time but with some minor adjustments in your stance and footwork, this can make the opponent miss their punches very easily also. They are not thinking that you are going to move, but make them punch the air!

About Hunting in the Winter

Hunting with a crossbow requires experience and technique just like any other hunting tools. Yet unlike other tools, it is best used when the hunter is near its prey. This is because the release of the bolts from this weapon could alarm its prey. This enables the target to move away even before the bolts hit it. Also, technically, the bolts will start to descend from its flight rapidly beyond 20 yards. This poses a major challenge since game species are easily spooked by footsteps, alarm from other animals, and especially abrupt and loud noises. This therefore requires the hunter to have extraordinary woodsmanship and can also stand a long hour practice. Success in hunting with this weapon is slim if the hunter is inexperienced in stealth and moving with the forest.

This weapon is also referred to as the lazy man’s weapon by many experienced hunters and weapon engineers. This is because it is very easy to use and convenient even for beginners. Although its predecessor is the primitive bows, this weapon requires less training and physical conditioning. This is exceptional, especially in winter, because of extreme cold which could hamper the optimal performance of a hunter’s body. Another aspect that is worth noticing for is the fact that it has a knockdown power as strong as conventional firearms. This ability gives game hunters a shooting convenience; they give less effort to catch a prey as compared to the effort of vertical bow hunters. As observed, these hunters have fought hard for their catch during winter season, while some hunters have devised various ways to make hunting easier for them.

Ideal Tennis Racket

To get the best match, you need to know what you should be looking for. This article will look at the main points to consider.

The grip is an oft forgotten element which can have a huge impact, with everything from ball striking to the likelihood of suffering injuries affected by the grip you select.

Comfort ought to be the biggest thing to look for, as you can make modifications later to get it perfect. A grip handle or over grip will help you make any modifications to turn it in to something you’re truly comfortable using.

The first step to find the best grip is to simply hold the racket as you normally would. When holding the racket there must be around a 1-1.5 cm gap between the grip and your hand. When you are able do this, you’ve found the right size.

When viewing head sizes you’ll encounter midsize, midplus, oversize and super oversize. The bigger head sizes will, obviously, have a bigger strike zone. The larger the strike zone, the simpler it is to hit big shots.

Most of the time the bigger head sizes tend to be more suited to those just learning the sport. Smaller, lighter head sizes allow more knowledgeable players a bit more freedom when hitting their shots. The fractions of a second a lighter racket helps you to save can make a big difference against better players.

The weight in the head, combined with the weight in the grip, will determine the balance of the racket. To test the weight of the racket, do this. Sit the racket on your open palm, sliding it along until it sits level. If the hand is close to the grip you’ve got a light head, or if your hand is close to the head you’ve got a heavier racket head.

If you want power, consider using a heavier racket. If you are seeking something simple to manoeuvre, go light. Heavier rackets are fantastic for those who keep to the baseline. Go light if you’d prefer to rush the net.

Your build should also play a part when deciding on a weight. The elbow and wrist can be strained when employing a heavier racket, while lighter rackets are generally easier on the joints. Consider a heavier racket if you believe you’ll find it difficult to generate sufficient power on your own.

There’s plenty out there, so take the time researching tennis rackets online prior to making your final purchase. This can also help you find a great deal on perfect racket.

About Cycling at Night

To prevent you from having to experience such a similar encounter (which could turn out worse) and for your safety, here are some basic tips for biking at night, whether you are just running some errands, leaving work or going home from classes:

Lights, lights, lights – Ensure your bike is equipped with a pair of lights. Keeping your cycle well lit will help other road users on the road to see you during the night and this will help to prevent accidents or collisions. In addition, your lights will help you to see obstacles along your path on the road ways (for example, potholes).

Reflectors – The bare minimum I recommend is having reflectors between your bicycle spokes on the wheel with front and rear reflectors (one on the handle bar and one below the seat pole). Like your lights, reflectors help other road users to see you coming. When a motor vehicle´s light hits your reflector, it reflects or lights up in a way that they cannot miss you, thus further ensuring your safety at night.

Clothing – Whilst riding at night, it is a good idea to not be wearing black clothes or dark colored clothing. Wear something bright, preferably white at all times as this will also help other road users to see you in the dark. This is a general rule that not only applies to cyclists but also is advised to pedestrians on the roadways at night.

Be alert and vigilant – The most important thing you can do, in my opinion, is to be vigilant and on the lookout whilst riding at night. Be on the lookout for pedestrians who may wander on the roadways and also for motor vehicles. I would further advise that you choose safe routes for biking after dark because you may be taking all the necessary precautions but there will always be reckless drivers on the road. Also, do not ride in places that are known to be dangerous at night or places that are too lonely. If possible, find a friend to go biking with at night.

Boxing Punches

Basic Boxing Punches

Boxing punches are typically assigned numbers so that when training you can refer to and call out punches quickly and without confusion. Depending on your trainer, different numbers might correspond to different punches. The following is a basic and standard numbering system which many other systems use as a base.

  1. Left Jab
  2. Straight Right/Right Cross
  3. Left Hook
  4. Right Hook
  5. Left Uppercut
  6. Right Uppercut

You will notice a few things about these numbers..

First of all, all of the odd-numbered punches are thrown with your left hand, and all of the even-numbered punches are thrown with your right hand.

Second, these punches are in pairs (1&2, 3&4, 5&6) that are the same, or similar punches but thrown with the opposite hand. These pairs often serve as building blocks for effective punching combinations.

Fighting “Southpaw”

If you are a southpaw (left-handed) fighter these punches are all thrown with the opposite hands. For example, the number 1 is a right jab, the 2 is a left cross/straight, the 3 is a right hook, etc. Your stance will also be opposite (in respect to left-right direction) that of a orthodox (right-handed) fighter.

How to Throw Punches

Left Jab

The jab is the most important punch in boxing because it is used both offensively and defensively and is used to set up other punches. The jab should be thrown almost continually throughout a fight. It serves to keep the other boxer on edge, get a feel for the distance between you, and to expose vulnerabilities that your opponent might open when he reacts to your jab. Additionally, jabs are often thrown to counter an opponent’s punch, and to protect yourself while pivoting or retreating.

To throw the jab, shoot your left hand in a straight line outwards from your chin. You do not want to use your elbow to generate power, but rather your shoulder. Think of your arm as a coiled spring.

On contact, the back of your hand should be parallel to the ground and you want to make contact with the knuckles of the pointer and middle finger primarily. Your fist should be relaxed, and tighten just before impact.

Because you are vulnerable with an arm extended, your must quickly “recoil the spring,” pulling your hand back into a guard.

Right Cross/Straight

The cross, or straight, is the notorious knockout punch. If you have heard the saying “The old 1-2,” this is what it is referring to – jab, cross. The cross is thrown with the same “coiled spring” concept as the jab, with the additional factor of torque provided by your shoulders and and hips. The straight can be extremely powerful, but that also makes it easy to over extend and leave yourself vulnerable. Because the cross takes longer to throw, it should almost always be thrown after a jab or other punch, so that your opponent has a hard time reacting or seeing it coming.

To throw a cross, turn your upper body towards your opponent by pivoting on your back foot and rotating your hips. Do not lunge forward with your body as this will leave you vulnerable.

As your back shoulder rotates forward, extend your arm like a coiled spring. Upon impact the top of your hand should be parallel to the ground. Keep your fist relaxed until just before impact.

Throughout the punch, maintain your guard with your left hand near your chin. After impact, quickly recoil your arm, and pivot back into your normal stance and guard.

Left Hook

The left hook is a punch that can be both quick and powerful. Lenedary trainer Freddy Roach once said that he would rather have a strong left hook than a right cross, because of its proximity to the opponent (being your front hand). The left hook can catch your opponent off guard, can catch them on their chin, or be thrown to the body. It works well at close range, or in response to a punch thrown by your opponent that leaves them exposed.

To throw a left hook transfer your weight briefly to your left side. It is important that you do not swing your body in this direction, but simply transfer weight subtly.

Quickly use your weight on the left foot to pivot back to the right, raising your elbow, and punching across your body with your arm parallel to the ground. Your arm should be bent at approximately a 90 degree angle. Your arm should be tight to your body, and not extended far.

The top of your fist can either be facing your opponent or parallel with the ground, but should be flat and in-line with your forearm.

Be careful not to over-extend yourself to your right leaving yourself vulnerable, and make sure to keep your right hand at your chin maintaining your guard throughout the punch.

Right Hook

The right hook is similar to the left hook, but can be more challenging to use because it is coming from your rear hand, making it slower. It is often used in combinations with the left hook, and while fighting at close range.

Throwing a right hook is done just like the left hook, but with directions reversed.

To throw a right hook, transfer your weight briefly to your right side. Quickly use that weight to then pivot left, while raising your elbow and punching across your body with your elbow bent. Keep your arm tight to your body and not extended far.

Make sure not to over-extend and leave yourself vulnerable, and to maintain your guard with your left hand near your chin throughout the punch.

Left Uppercut

Uppercuts can be very dangerous punches, that are typically thrown when fighting in close range, or in response to a punch thrown by your opponent. Uppercuts can be knockout punches if they connect with the chin, but are also used rapidly to the body which can significantly harm an opponents balance and strength. Like hooks, uppercuts should be tight and controlled because you will be vulnerable if thrown wildly and over-extended.

To throw a left uppercut (front hand) dip slightly to your left at your waist. Raise your back heel, put pressure on the ball of your front foot, and dip your left elbow slightly.

Rotate your fist upwards, and explode up in a sharp movement from the front foot. Do not over-extend your arm, but keep it close with a sharp bend in the elbow.

Maintain your guard with your right hand throughout the punch, and pull your left arm back into your guard as soon as it carries through.

You arm should remain close to your body, and not dip excessively low, or carry through excessively high.

Right Uppercut

As the right hook mirrors the left hook, so the right uppercut mirrors the left uppercut. It is thrown in the same situations as the left uppercut, and often in combination with the left uppercut to work an opponents body.

To throw a right uppercut, dip slightly right at your waist. Raise your front heel, put pressure on the ball on your back foot, and dip your right elbow slightly.

Rotate your fist up, and explode upwards in a sharp movement from your back foot. Maintain your guard with your left hand throughout the punch, and pull your right hand back into a guard after it carries through.

The Danger of Over-extending

Over-extending can mean two things, both of which are dangers you need to avoid.

First, over-extending can refer to swinging a punch farther away from your body that it is meant to be thrown. This is commonly done with hooks and uppercuts. This makes the punch easy to avoid, and leaves your body wide open to be attacked.

Second, over-extending can refer to extending your arm (in a jab or cross) to the point where your elbow locks out. In practice or shadowboxing, if you throw your punches to full extension, you will hurt your elbow. Your punches should end prior to full extension of your arm.

Custom Golf Carts

Today’s golf carts have become the perfect vehicle because it can often go to places where a larger car or truck would be in the way. They can be bought used or new, and then upgraded to meet ones needs. If opting to buy a used cart then have it customized, then there are several things you will want to consider, before making the decision to buy.

  • · Do you want a gas or electric powered cart? Gas carts are noisier, require more maintenance and have been banned in some states; however, they have more horsepower and can run longer on a single tank of gas than the average battery can last. They are also ideal for uneven terrain and can even pull and tow. The battery powered carts are less expensive to operate and are better for the environment. However, they must be recharged after a full day of use and do not typically have the ability to tow something.
  • · What type of body do you want it to have? From size to color, there is a variety of choices available. Talk to the dealer to learn what offerings there are.
  • · Do you want to have an affixed windshield? Depending on where you live, this could be important. If going for a custom cart, this is a great feature.
  • · What about a radio? If you are a music lover, this would also be a nice feature to include.
  • · Seat material – Customize your cart by opting for leather or a specific fabric. You could keep it the standard white, or opt for a logo or other pattern.
  • · How many seats? You can choose to have one seat, rear facing seats, or even an extra row of seats. The choice is yours.
  • · Headlights – If you will be driving at night or where low visibility is an issue, these will be important. You will also want to learn if headlights are required in your area.
  • · Can you see? In addition to headlights, many custom golf carts have side and rear-view mirrors added so drivers have better visibility.

The golf cart – no longer is it only found parked near the 18th hole. Today, you can have a custom golf cart to meet your needs and specs.

Play Golf Experience

Practice Makes Perfect

Players of all ages and abilities are most effective when they practice, practice, practice. Many stay and play golf facilities have driving ranges. There are some that have indoor simulators. Hitting balls is a great way to hone your skills, enhance balance control, and burn calories. You can also ask the staff about lessons or how you can practice with their pros.

Visit the Pro Shop On-Site

Is your equipment up to par? Do you need new gloves? Take your clubs to the pro shop and have the staff repair them. This is where you can solve the last minute hiccups that occur.

Rest and Hydration

Get at least 8 hours of sleep prior to your outing. It will improve your focus and performance. Be sure to drink plenty of water before tee time. Playing 18 holes in the sun can lead to dehydration if you do not drink enough fluids.

Warm Up

Before you begin playing, do some stretching exercises. Take a few minutes to extend your arms and legs. Making a few swings is another way to warm up. Hit a few balls and gauge how the wind is blowing.

Walking vs. Riding

If you walk the entire 18 holes, it is equivalent to a 5 mile walk or almost a 4 mile run. Using a cart is a helpful way to get around the greens if necessary, but walking the course can burn up to 2,000 calories.

Eating Healthy

Most stay and play golf courses offer healthy snacks to their patrons. Consider packing some fruits and vegetables to have on hand while you play. Granola bars and nuts will help you refuel and keep your mind sharp.

Keep Moving

A player can exceed 10,000 steps in a typical round. That is the recommended guideline for daily exercise. Stretching in between shots can burn more calories. If you are waiting for your turn, you can walk around and practice your swings.

Blade Classified

Attacks on the blade are preparatory actions directed at the opponent’s blade to remove the blade from the line, creating an opening through with a direct attack can be made. Alternatively they may remove the blade by provoking a lateral or circular response to the pressure which can be deceived by the attacker, for example, by disengage, coupe, or counterdisengage.

Although the term “attacks on the blade” has been criticized on the basis that a fencer cannot attack the blade, but only the opponent, I believe the term is the best description of what actually happens. These actions work by percussion, the application of quick, sharp force to the blade to set it in motion. The fencer applies force to the opponent’s blade to move it as part of an attacking action.

There are three common attacks on the blade:

The Press – executed from engagement, the press displaces the opponent’s blade by momentary lateral or semi-circular pressure on the blade until the actual attack is launched. The press is not as obviously threatening as the beat or froissement and may be maintained for a relatively long period before the final action of the attack.

The Beat – executed from a position where the blades are not in contact as a crisp impact on the opponent’s blade, displacing the blade from the line. The beat can be executed from engagement, but in this case requires detachment from the blade, potentially losing the element of surprise.

The Froissement (also termed Expulsion) – executed from engagement, this is a sharp grazing action which starts using the forte near the tip of the opponent’s blade and progesses down and in to violently deflect the blade, often ending with the attacker’s point out of line. This is the most difficult of the attacks on the blade to control, and probably the easiest to deceive. As a result it is not commonly used.

Choosing Golf Clubs

The first thing you have to do before you walk into any pro golf shop to buy golf clubs and golf club holders is to know your skill level. Your skill level will be beginner, intermediate or professional. Knowing what you are capable of when on the course will help your sales person identify the right clubs based on your skill level. Beginner clubs tend to be bigger than the professional options.

Next you need to know what you are going to need. Don’t be fooled as a beginner that you need more than you do. If you are still learning, don’t get overwhelmed with all the different options available. Stick to the basics. If you have been playing with certain clubs and you are comfortable with them, then don’t change them now. Focus on buying the same or similar to what you have been using. You can always add more as and when you start to improve and become more confident in the game.

Once you have some indication of your skill level and what you are going to need to play a game of golf regularly to improve, you need to remember that bigger is not always better. As a beginner, it is common to purchase bigger clubs which give you a little more control when swinging, but it is also not always the best option. Speak with your sales assistant and ensure that they understand what you need. Sometimes buying slightly smaller can help you improve your game and start moving up the ranks to intermediate.

Set yourself a budget before you purchase any golf clubs. Setting a budget and knowing what you can afford can help you make the best financial decisions based on what you are looking for. Take some time, do your own research and identify the type of clubs you will be looking for, this can help you set your budget before you start searching.

Whether you are new to golf or you have been playing for some time, you can always find that lessons can be highly beneficial to your game. You don’t have to take golf seriously, it may be a fun game with the family or with friends, a chance to get out in the fresh air and have a good walk, but you also want to ensure that you have your swing right and that you know how to complete the course with the minimum amount of swings.

Your height is essential when it comes to buying golf clubs. You will be measured from your hip height to your feet. This will enable the sales assistant to give you the right height golf cub so you can swing with ease and confidence, hitting the ball every time.

If you are a company and your clients are golfers and you want to learn the game, remember to get professional assistance from your local pro shop. It is also worthwhile considering having some custom golf club holders made which you can hand out to friends you make along the way to help increase your business visibility in the local area.

Buying Tree Climbing Gear

Determine your budget

Many types of tree climbing gear are relatively affordable, from ropes to throw weights. However, there are other items that can be a bit more of an investment, especially if you begin to invest in professional-quality climbing harnesses, ascenders and descenders. If you are going to be climbing for a career or as a serious hobby, investing in more equipment and setting a higher budget is often worthwhile as you can become a much more effective climber with more advanced gear. However, if you plan to climb only occasionally or if you are buying tree climbing gear for a child who may outgrow his or her fascination with climbing trees, you might want to start small.

Define your climbing needs

First, you need the basic requirements for safety. An OSHA/ANSI approved saddle, lanyard and climbing line are essentials. When it comes to carabiners, there are many options available from screw lock, twist lock to ball lock. Just remember for climbing you must have double auto locking carabiners. There are also choices for throw lines and throw weights. The heavier the throw ball the farther it will go in the tree. Don’t forget a hard hat. Groundsmen can wear the Bullard, or fill rim style while climbers should wear a climbing helmet with cushion and a chin strap. For climbing spikes or spurs, there are choices of irons or lighter-weight aluminum. There are different pads to choose from depending on your personal preference, comfort and budget. Accessories such as ascenders, descenders, bags and storage may also come in handy as well, so don’t forget to consider these items when you think about the types of tear climbing gear you want to buy.

Size your gear appropriately

Harnesses come in small, medium, large and ex-large. You must have a proper fit not only for comfort but safety as well. All harnesses have leg and waist adjustments to tailor to your body. Your saddle/harness should fit snug but have enough adjustments for cooler weather when you wear more layers. However, there are different harnesses for kids than for adults, so you’ll need to make sure you get the right products. Children’s harnesses have weight ratings so make sure you are safe and protected by the harness you buy.

Info of Types of Climbing

Top rope climbing- Top rope climbing is the way that most everyone learns to climb. It is the least dangerous and the easiest to learn at the start. My kids climb top rope and I have seen kids as young as three years old begin learning. If you can fit in the equipment, you can learn to top rope climb. This is also the type of climbing that many pregnant women do long into their pregnancies until they are too far along to climb comfortably anymore. In top rope climbing, the climber is tied to the end of the rope which runs up to an anchor point at the top and back down to a belayer on the ground who will hold the climber’s fall. The rope is always above the climber so no real “falling” occurs.

Lead climbing- Once you have learned the basics of safety and the mechanics of climbing, you may move into lead climbing. This requires more mental commitment than having the top rope above you at all times. You will be tied to your harness with one end of the rope, which will trail along as you climb. The trailing end of the rope goes down to the belayer who will feed the rope out through a belay device. If the lead climber falls, the belayer is there with equipment to help slow/stop the fall and will take most of the force of the fall. However, unlike top rope climbing, there is potential for a real fall to happen.

Bouldering- Bouldering refers to climbing outdoors on boulders or at the bases of cliffs. You will use just climbing shoes and a chalk bag and it is very physically demanding. You don’t climb very high off the ground so there is no need to ropes or belay. Usually the climber can jump off the bouldering surface without injury. Usually bouldering is done at 10-12 feet off the ground or lower.

Sport climbing- Sport climbing is growing a great deal in popularity and is excellent physical activity while still being relatively safe. It’s done using a rope and belay but sport climbs are bolted so the leading climber doesn’t have to place their own protection. Instead, you carry quickdraws and place them into the eye of the pre-positioned bolts as you are climbing. Sport climbs are usually (but not always) shorter routes.

Indoor climbing- Indoor climbing is becoming more popular today than ever before. It allows safe, climate-controlled climbing in a structured environment. Most indoor rock climbing facilities have the option for different types of climbing and bouldering. They usually also offer rental equipment, lessons and structured activities. Indoor climbing is a great way to build the fundamentals you need for outdoor climbing as well.

Exercises For Knee Pain

Here are some exercises that will help you to relieve any pain you may have – and to keep your knees strong.

Wall Slide: Lean your back against a wall and bend your knees. Only bend about 30 degrees – you don’t want a full squat. Do not let your knees go out over your toes. Do this about 5-10 times.

Bent-Leg Raises: Sit in a chair and rest your foot on another chair. Lift your foot a few inches from the chair while keeping your leg straight. Hold for up to 10 seconds. Lower. Do this 5-10 times. You can work on increasing your time – up to 2 minutes if you like.

Standing Leg Lifts: Stand again with your back against a wall. Lift one leg while keeping your knee straight. Hold for 5 seconds. Bend knee to relax. Extend leg again. Do 5 repeats – then switch to the other leg. Try to work up to 10 seconds.

Knee Flex: Sit in a chair. Loop an exercise band if you have one under your foot. If you don’t have a band – a towel will work just fine. Pull on the towel with both hands and bend your knee to raise your foot about 5 inches off the floor. Hold and then release. Do 5 times on each leg.

Biking: Riding a stationary bike is also great to build strength around your knees. When you begin, try to do 10 minutes and then increase your time.

These exercises will help to strengthen your knees and help keep you out on the roads. A good practice is to get in the habit of doing them as part of your routine – whether your knees are bothering you or not.

Fencing Technique

First – what is a beat? The simple answer is that it is a one tempo percussive action delivered to an opponent’s blade. Traditionally, beats have been classified with presses and froissements as attacks on the blade because the focus of the action is the opponent’s blade, not his target area.

Notice that I did not say that it is an action to remove an opponent’s blade from a line, or that it is part of an attack. That is because a beat can have a variety of tactical outcomes:

  1. simple annoyance – these are small beats delivered to the opponent’s blade, typically with the outer foible, with the intent of annoying the opponent and engaging her attention.
  2. beats to draw a reaction – these are more substantial beats with foible to mid-section of your blade to cause the opponent to react as preparation for the fencer’s attack or countertime action.
  3. destructive beats – beats with the inner foible to disrupt a developing attack plan or to deny an opponent the ability to use a line (thereby increasing his predictability).
  4. beats as part of an attack – beats with the inner foible or mid-section of your blade to displace the opponent’s blade, opening the line for your immediate attack.
  5. beats as a parry or as part of offensive countertime (as a beat straight thrust executed on the opponent’s stop hit). Under the current rules a beat effectively cannot be a parry in foil or sabre (a parry must be executed with the lower one-third of the blade). However, a beat certainly will displace the opponent’s blade from the line of the attack, and the beat parry has long been an accepted part of the fencing skill set. Understand that in foil and sabre you cannot simply beat into an opponent’s beat attack. The beat attack will be given right of way. If the opponent beats your blade, you must beat the attack coming off the beat so that there is a discernible sequence of beat-beat. But who knows how that action will be called by the referee.

A well delivered beat has certain characteristics in all three weapons. The more of these that are present, the better the probability of success in achieving the goal.

  1. the beat complies with the requirements of the rules. In epee, there are no requirements, but in foil and sabre beats must be delivered on the two-thirds of the blade furthest from the opponent’s guard (this has been redefined in the rules as the foible, as opposed to the long-standing usage that the foible is the forward half of the blade in foil and the blade beyond the Y, T, or I in a sabre blade) (see rules t.56.4 and t.78).
  2. the beat starts when the blades are not in contact. If the blades are in contact, bringing your blade off the opponent’s will provide her a clear indication of what you plan to do.
  3. the beat is not chambered or cocked – pulling the blade to the side to bring it back in the beat allows stop hits in epee, stop cuts in sabre, and derobements in all three weapons.
  4. the beat exerts sufficient power for its purpose. However, it is not a brute force action intended to propel the opponent’s blade across the room. Timing, enough force to move the blade from the line but no more, and quickness are more important than simply smashing the blade as hard as you can.
  5. the beat is quick – to be successful beats must give the opponent as little warning as possible. Quick fingers, with some wrist action, are necessary.
  6. the beat is crisp and dry – one impact with the blade with a crisp sound.
  7. the beat stops lateral or vertical motion on impact and transitions immediately to forward action. The beat should drive the opponent’s blade in the desired direction with an energy transfer at the point of contact. This transfer should leave the blade ready to immediately move forward from the point of impact toward the target. One way to think of this is as a shallow angle bounce off a trampoline.
  8. the resulting attacking action hits the target. In the big scheme of fencing actions, beats do the same thing as compound attacks and takings of the blades. They put the opponent’s blade in motion, opening a line that you can exploit. In any of the weapons this makes them an important part of your toolkit of technique, and one that deserves constant practice.