About Cycling at Night

To prevent you from having to experience such a similar encounter (which could turn out worse) and for your safety, here are some basic tips for biking at night, whether you are just running some errands, leaving work or going home from classes:

Lights, lights, lights – Ensure your bike is equipped with a pair of lights. Keeping your cycle well lit will help other road users on the road to see you during the night and this will help to prevent accidents or collisions. In addition, your lights will help you to see obstacles along your path on the road ways (for example, potholes).

Reflectors – The bare minimum I recommend is having reflectors between your bicycle spokes on the wheel with front and rear reflectors (one on the handle bar and one below the seat pole). Like your lights, reflectors help other road users to see you coming. When a motor vehicle´s light hits your reflector, it reflects or lights up in a way that they cannot miss you, thus further ensuring your safety at night.

Clothing – Whilst riding at night, it is a good idea to not be wearing black clothes or dark colored clothing. Wear something bright, preferably white at all times as this will also help other road users to see you in the dark. This is a general rule that not only applies to cyclists but also is advised to pedestrians on the roadways at night.

Be alert and vigilant – The most important thing you can do, in my opinion, is to be vigilant and on the lookout whilst riding at night. Be on the lookout for pedestrians who may wander on the roadways and also for motor vehicles. I would further advise that you choose safe routes for biking after dark because you may be taking all the necessary precautions but there will always be reckless drivers on the road. Also, do not ride in places that are known to be dangerous at night or places that are too lonely. If possible, find a friend to go biking with at night.

Boxing Punches

Basic Boxing Punches

Boxing punches are typically assigned numbers so that when training you can refer to and call out punches quickly and without confusion. Depending on your trainer, different numbers might correspond to different punches. The following is a basic and standard numbering system which many other systems use as a base.

  1. Left Jab
  2. Straight Right/Right Cross
  3. Left Hook
  4. Right Hook
  5. Left Uppercut
  6. Right Uppercut

You will notice a few things about these numbers..

First of all, all of the odd-numbered punches are thrown with your left hand, and all of the even-numbered punches are thrown with your right hand.

Second, these punches are in pairs (1&2, 3&4, 5&6) that are the same, or similar punches but thrown with the opposite hand. These pairs often serve as building blocks for effective punching combinations.

Fighting “Southpaw”

If you are a southpaw (left-handed) fighter these punches are all thrown with the opposite hands. For example, the number 1 is a right jab, the 2 is a left cross/straight, the 3 is a right hook, etc. Your stance will also be opposite (in respect to left-right direction) that of a orthodox (right-handed) fighter.

How to Throw Punches

Left Jab

The jab is the most important punch in boxing because it is used both offensively and defensively and is used to set up other punches. The jab should be thrown almost continually throughout a fight. It serves to keep the other boxer on edge, get a feel for the distance between you, and to expose vulnerabilities that your opponent might open when he reacts to your jab. Additionally, jabs are often thrown to counter an opponent’s punch, and to protect yourself while pivoting or retreating.

To throw the jab, shoot your left hand in a straight line outwards from your chin. You do not want to use your elbow to generate power, but rather your shoulder. Think of your arm as a coiled spring.

On contact, the back of your hand should be parallel to the ground and you want to make contact with the knuckles of the pointer and middle finger primarily. Your fist should be relaxed, and tighten just before impact.

Because you are vulnerable with an arm extended, your must quickly “recoil the spring,” pulling your hand back into a guard.

Right Cross/Straight

The cross, or straight, is the notorious knockout punch. If you have heard the saying “The old 1-2,” this is what it is referring to – jab, cross. The cross is thrown with the same “coiled spring” concept as the jab, with the additional factor of torque provided by your shoulders and and hips. The straight can be extremely powerful, but that also makes it easy to over extend and leave yourself vulnerable. Because the cross takes longer to throw, it should almost always be thrown after a jab or other punch, so that your opponent has a hard time reacting or seeing it coming.

To throw a cross, turn your upper body towards your opponent by pivoting on your back foot and rotating your hips. Do not lunge forward with your body as this will leave you vulnerable.

As your back shoulder rotates forward, extend your arm like a coiled spring. Upon impact the top of your hand should be parallel to the ground. Keep your fist relaxed until just before impact.

Throughout the punch, maintain your guard with your left hand near your chin. After impact, quickly recoil your arm, and pivot back into your normal stance and guard.

Left Hook

The left hook is a punch that can be both quick and powerful. Lenedary trainer Freddy Roach once said that he would rather have a strong left hook than a right cross, because of its proximity to the opponent (being your front hand). The left hook can catch your opponent off guard, can catch them on their chin, or be thrown to the body. It works well at close range, or in response to a punch thrown by your opponent that leaves them exposed.

To throw a left hook transfer your weight briefly to your left side. It is important that you do not swing your body in this direction, but simply transfer weight subtly.

Quickly use your weight on the left foot to pivot back to the right, raising your elbow, and punching across your body with your arm parallel to the ground. Your arm should be bent at approximately a 90 degree angle. Your arm should be tight to your body, and not extended far.

The top of your fist can either be facing your opponent or parallel with the ground, but should be flat and in-line with your forearm.

Be careful not to over-extend yourself to your right leaving yourself vulnerable, and make sure to keep your right hand at your chin maintaining your guard throughout the punch.

Right Hook

The right hook is similar to the left hook, but can be more challenging to use because it is coming from your rear hand, making it slower. It is often used in combinations with the left hook, and while fighting at close range.

Throwing a right hook is done just like the left hook, but with directions reversed.

To throw a right hook, transfer your weight briefly to your right side. Quickly use that weight to then pivot left, while raising your elbow and punching across your body with your elbow bent. Keep your arm tight to your body and not extended far.

Make sure not to over-extend and leave yourself vulnerable, and to maintain your guard with your left hand near your chin throughout the punch.

Left Uppercut

Uppercuts can be very dangerous punches, that are typically thrown when fighting in close range, or in response to a punch thrown by your opponent. Uppercuts can be knockout punches if they connect with the chin, but are also used rapidly to the body which can significantly harm an opponents balance and strength. Like hooks, uppercuts should be tight and controlled because you will be vulnerable if thrown wildly and over-extended.

To throw a left uppercut (front hand) dip slightly to your left at your waist. Raise your back heel, put pressure on the ball of your front foot, and dip your left elbow slightly.

Rotate your fist upwards, and explode up in a sharp movement from the front foot. Do not over-extend your arm, but keep it close with a sharp bend in the elbow.

Maintain your guard with your right hand throughout the punch, and pull your left arm back into your guard as soon as it carries through.

You arm should remain close to your body, and not dip excessively low, or carry through excessively high.

Right Uppercut

As the right hook mirrors the left hook, so the right uppercut mirrors the left uppercut. It is thrown in the same situations as the left uppercut, and often in combination with the left uppercut to work an opponents body.

To throw a right uppercut, dip slightly right at your waist. Raise your front heel, put pressure on the ball on your back foot, and dip your right elbow slightly.

Rotate your fist up, and explode upwards in a sharp movement from your back foot. Maintain your guard with your left hand throughout the punch, and pull your right hand back into a guard after it carries through.

The Danger of Over-extending

Over-extending can mean two things, both of which are dangers you need to avoid.

First, over-extending can refer to swinging a punch farther away from your body that it is meant to be thrown. This is commonly done with hooks and uppercuts. This makes the punch easy to avoid, and leaves your body wide open to be attacked.

Second, over-extending can refer to extending your arm (in a jab or cross) to the point where your elbow locks out. In practice or shadowboxing, if you throw your punches to full extension, you will hurt your elbow. Your punches should end prior to full extension of your arm.

Custom Golf Carts

Today’s golf carts have become the perfect vehicle because it can often go to places where a larger car or truck would be in the way. They can be bought used or new, and then upgraded to meet ones needs. If opting to buy a used cart then have it customized, then there are several things you will want to consider, before making the decision to buy.

  • · Do you want a gas or electric powered cart? Gas carts are noisier, require more maintenance and have been banned in some states; however, they have more horsepower and can run longer on a single tank of gas than the average battery can last. They are also ideal for uneven terrain and can even pull and tow. The battery powered carts are less expensive to operate and are better for the environment. However, they must be recharged after a full day of use and do not typically have the ability to tow something.
  • · What type of body do you want it to have? From size to color, there is a variety of choices available. Talk to the dealer to learn what offerings there are.
  • · Do you want to have an affixed windshield? Depending on where you live, this could be important. If going for a custom cart, this is a great feature.
  • · What about a radio? If you are a music lover, this would also be a nice feature to include.
  • · Seat material – Customize your cart by opting for leather or a specific fabric. You could keep it the standard white, or opt for a logo or other pattern.
  • · How many seats? You can choose to have one seat, rear facing seats, or even an extra row of seats. The choice is yours.
  • · Headlights – If you will be driving at night or where low visibility is an issue, these will be important. You will also want to learn if headlights are required in your area.
  • · Can you see? In addition to headlights, many custom golf carts have side and rear-view mirrors added so drivers have better visibility.

The golf cart – no longer is it only found parked near the 18th hole. Today, you can have a custom golf cart to meet your needs and specs.

Play Golf Experience

Practice Makes Perfect

Players of all ages and abilities are most effective when they practice, practice, practice. Many stay and play golf facilities have driving ranges. There are some that have indoor simulators. Hitting balls is a great way to hone your skills, enhance balance control, and burn calories. You can also ask the staff about lessons or how you can practice with their pros.

Visit the Pro Shop On-Site

Is your equipment up to par? Do you need new gloves? Take your clubs to the pro shop and have the staff repair them. This is where you can solve the last minute hiccups that occur.

Rest and Hydration

Get at least 8 hours of sleep prior to your outing. It will improve your focus and performance. Be sure to drink plenty of water before tee time. Playing 18 holes in the sun can lead to dehydration if you do not drink enough fluids.

Warm Up

Before you begin playing, do some stretching exercises. Take a few minutes to extend your arms and legs. Making a few swings is another way to warm up. Hit a few balls and gauge how the wind is blowing.

Walking vs. Riding

If you walk the entire 18 holes, it is equivalent to a 5 mile walk or almost a 4 mile run. Using a cart is a helpful way to get around the greens if necessary, but walking the course can burn up to 2,000 calories.

Eating Healthy

Most stay and play golf courses offer healthy snacks to their patrons. Consider packing some fruits and vegetables to have on hand while you play. Granola bars and nuts will help you refuel and keep your mind sharp.

Keep Moving

A player can exceed 10,000 steps in a typical round. That is the recommended guideline for daily exercise. Stretching in between shots can burn more calories. If you are waiting for your turn, you can walk around and practice your swings.

Blade Classified

Attacks on the blade are preparatory actions directed at the opponent’s blade to remove the blade from the line, creating an opening through with a direct attack can be made. Alternatively they may remove the blade by provoking a lateral or circular response to the pressure which can be deceived by the attacker, for example, by disengage, coupe, or counterdisengage.

Although the term “attacks on the blade” has been criticized on the basis that a fencer cannot attack the blade, but only the opponent, I believe the term is the best description of what actually happens. These actions work by percussion, the application of quick, sharp force to the blade to set it in motion. The fencer applies force to the opponent’s blade to move it as part of an attacking action.

There are three common attacks on the blade:

The Press – executed from engagement, the press displaces the opponent’s blade by momentary lateral or semi-circular pressure on the blade until the actual attack is launched. The press is not as obviously threatening as the beat or froissement and may be maintained for a relatively long period before the final action of the attack.

The Beat – executed from a position where the blades are not in contact as a crisp impact on the opponent’s blade, displacing the blade from the line. The beat can be executed from engagement, but in this case requires detachment from the blade, potentially losing the element of surprise.

The Froissement (also termed Expulsion) – executed from engagement, this is a sharp grazing action which starts using the forte near the tip of the opponent’s blade and progesses down and in to violently deflect the blade, often ending with the attacker’s point out of line. This is the most difficult of the attacks on the blade to control, and probably the easiest to deceive. As a result it is not commonly used.

Choosing Golf Clubs

The first thing you have to do before you walk into any pro golf shop to buy golf clubs and golf club holders is to know your skill level. Your skill level will be beginner, intermediate or professional. Knowing what you are capable of when on the course will help your sales person identify the right clubs based on your skill level. Beginner clubs tend to be bigger than the professional options.

Next you need to know what you are going to need. Don’t be fooled as a beginner that you need more than you do. If you are still learning, don’t get overwhelmed with all the different options available. Stick to the basics. If you have been playing with certain clubs and you are comfortable with them, then don’t change them now. Focus on buying the same or similar to what you have been using. You can always add more as and when you start to improve and become more confident in the game.

Once you have some indication of your skill level and what you are going to need to play a game of golf regularly to improve, you need to remember that bigger is not always better. As a beginner, it is common to purchase bigger clubs which give you a little more control when swinging, but it is also not always the best option. Speak with your sales assistant and ensure that they understand what you need. Sometimes buying slightly smaller can help you improve your game and start moving up the ranks to intermediate.

Set yourself a budget before you purchase any golf clubs. Setting a budget and knowing what you can afford can help you make the best financial decisions based on what you are looking for. Take some time, do your own research and identify the type of clubs you will be looking for, this can help you set your budget before you start searching.

Whether you are new to golf or you have been playing for some time, you can always find that lessons can be highly beneficial to your game. You don’t have to take golf seriously, it may be a fun game with the family or with friends, a chance to get out in the fresh air and have a good walk, but you also want to ensure that you have your swing right and that you know how to complete the course with the minimum amount of swings.

Your height is essential when it comes to buying golf clubs. You will be measured from your hip height to your feet. This will enable the sales assistant to give you the right height golf cub so you can swing with ease and confidence, hitting the ball every time.

If you are a company and your clients are golfers and you want to learn the game, remember to get professional assistance from your local pro shop. It is also worthwhile considering having some custom golf club holders made which you can hand out to friends you make along the way to help increase your business visibility in the local area.

Buying Tree Climbing Gear

Determine your budget

Many types of tree climbing gear are relatively affordable, from ropes to throw weights. However, there are other items that can be a bit more of an investment, especially if you begin to invest in professional-quality climbing harnesses, ascenders and descenders. If you are going to be climbing for a career or as a serious hobby, investing in more equipment and setting a higher budget is often worthwhile as you can become a much more effective climber with more advanced gear. However, if you plan to climb only occasionally or if you are buying tree climbing gear for a child who may outgrow his or her fascination with climbing trees, you might want to start small.

Define your climbing needs

First, you need the basic requirements for safety. An OSHA/ANSI approved saddle, lanyard and climbing line are essentials. When it comes to carabiners, there are many options available from screw lock, twist lock to ball lock. Just remember for climbing you must have double auto locking carabiners. There are also choices for throw lines and throw weights. The heavier the throw ball the farther it will go in the tree. Don’t forget a hard hat. Groundsmen can wear the Bullard, or fill rim style while climbers should wear a climbing helmet with cushion and a chin strap. For climbing spikes or spurs, there are choices of irons or lighter-weight aluminum. There are different pads to choose from depending on your personal preference, comfort and budget. Accessories such as ascenders, descenders, bags and storage may also come in handy as well, so don’t forget to consider these items when you think about the types of tear climbing gear you want to buy.

Size your gear appropriately

Harnesses come in small, medium, large and ex-large. You must have a proper fit not only for comfort but safety as well. All harnesses have leg and waist adjustments to tailor to your body. Your saddle/harness should fit snug but have enough adjustments for cooler weather when you wear more layers. However, there are different harnesses for kids than for adults, so you’ll need to make sure you get the right products. Children’s harnesses have weight ratings so make sure you are safe and protected by the harness you buy.

Info of Types of Climbing

Top rope climbing- Top rope climbing is the way that most everyone learns to climb. It is the least dangerous and the easiest to learn at the start. My kids climb top rope and I have seen kids as young as three years old begin learning. If you can fit in the equipment, you can learn to top rope climb. This is also the type of climbing that many pregnant women do long into their pregnancies until they are too far along to climb comfortably anymore. In top rope climbing, the climber is tied to the end of the rope which runs up to an anchor point at the top and back down to a belayer on the ground who will hold the climber’s fall. The rope is always above the climber so no real “falling” occurs.

Lead climbing- Once you have learned the basics of safety and the mechanics of climbing, you may move into lead climbing. This requires more mental commitment than having the top rope above you at all times. You will be tied to your harness with one end of the rope, which will trail along as you climb. The trailing end of the rope goes down to the belayer who will feed the rope out through a belay device. If the lead climber falls, the belayer is there with equipment to help slow/stop the fall and will take most of the force of the fall. However, unlike top rope climbing, there is potential for a real fall to happen.

Bouldering- Bouldering refers to climbing outdoors on boulders or at the bases of cliffs. You will use just climbing shoes and a chalk bag and it is very physically demanding. You don’t climb very high off the ground so there is no need to ropes or belay. Usually the climber can jump off the bouldering surface without injury. Usually bouldering is done at 10-12 feet off the ground or lower.

Sport climbing- Sport climbing is growing a great deal in popularity and is excellent physical activity while still being relatively safe. It’s done using a rope and belay but sport climbs are bolted so the leading climber doesn’t have to place their own protection. Instead, you carry quickdraws and place them into the eye of the pre-positioned bolts as you are climbing. Sport climbs are usually (but not always) shorter routes.

Indoor climbing- Indoor climbing is becoming more popular today than ever before. It allows safe, climate-controlled climbing in a structured environment. Most indoor rock climbing facilities have the option for different types of climbing and bouldering. They usually also offer rental equipment, lessons and structured activities. Indoor climbing is a great way to build the fundamentals you need for outdoor climbing as well.

Exercises For Knee Pain

Here are some exercises that will help you to relieve any pain you may have – and to keep your knees strong.

Wall Slide: Lean your back against a wall and bend your knees. Only bend about 30 degrees – you don’t want a full squat. Do not let your knees go out over your toes. Do this about 5-10 times.

Bent-Leg Raises: Sit in a chair and rest your foot on another chair. Lift your foot a few inches from the chair while keeping your leg straight. Hold for up to 10 seconds. Lower. Do this 5-10 times. You can work on increasing your time – up to 2 minutes if you like.

Standing Leg Lifts: Stand again with your back against a wall. Lift one leg while keeping your knee straight. Hold for 5 seconds. Bend knee to relax. Extend leg again. Do 5 repeats – then switch to the other leg. Try to work up to 10 seconds.

Knee Flex: Sit in a chair. Loop an exercise band if you have one under your foot. If you don’t have a band – a towel will work just fine. Pull on the towel with both hands and bend your knee to raise your foot about 5 inches off the floor. Hold and then release. Do 5 times on each leg.

Biking: Riding a stationary bike is also great to build strength around your knees. When you begin, try to do 10 minutes and then increase your time.

These exercises will help to strengthen your knees and help keep you out on the roads. A good practice is to get in the habit of doing them as part of your routine – whether your knees are bothering you or not.

Fencing Technique

First – what is a beat? The simple answer is that it is a one tempo percussive action delivered to an opponent’s blade. Traditionally, beats have been classified with presses and froissements as attacks on the blade because the focus of the action is the opponent’s blade, not his target area.

Notice that I did not say that it is an action to remove an opponent’s blade from a line, or that it is part of an attack. That is because a beat can have a variety of tactical outcomes:

  1. simple annoyance – these are small beats delivered to the opponent’s blade, typically with the outer foible, with the intent of annoying the opponent and engaging her attention.
  2. beats to draw a reaction – these are more substantial beats with foible to mid-section of your blade to cause the opponent to react as preparation for the fencer’s attack or countertime action.
  3. destructive beats – beats with the inner foible to disrupt a developing attack plan or to deny an opponent the ability to use a line (thereby increasing his predictability).
  4. beats as part of an attack – beats with the inner foible or mid-section of your blade to displace the opponent’s blade, opening the line for your immediate attack.
  5. beats as a parry or as part of offensive countertime (as a beat straight thrust executed on the opponent’s stop hit). Under the current rules a beat effectively cannot be a parry in foil or sabre (a parry must be executed with the lower one-third of the blade). However, a beat certainly will displace the opponent’s blade from the line of the attack, and the beat parry has long been an accepted part of the fencing skill set. Understand that in foil and sabre you cannot simply beat into an opponent’s beat attack. The beat attack will be given right of way. If the opponent beats your blade, you must beat the attack coming off the beat so that there is a discernible sequence of beat-beat. But who knows how that action will be called by the referee.

A well delivered beat has certain characteristics in all three weapons. The more of these that are present, the better the probability of success in achieving the goal.

  1. the beat complies with the requirements of the rules. In epee, there are no requirements, but in foil and sabre beats must be delivered on the two-thirds of the blade furthest from the opponent’s guard (this has been redefined in the rules as the foible, as opposed to the long-standing usage that the foible is the forward half of the blade in foil and the blade beyond the Y, T, or I in a sabre blade) (see rules t.56.4 and t.78).
  2. the beat starts when the blades are not in contact. If the blades are in contact, bringing your blade off the opponent’s will provide her a clear indication of what you plan to do.
  3. the beat is not chambered or cocked – pulling the blade to the side to bring it back in the beat allows stop hits in epee, stop cuts in sabre, and derobements in all three weapons.
  4. the beat exerts sufficient power for its purpose. However, it is not a brute force action intended to propel the opponent’s blade across the room. Timing, enough force to move the blade from the line but no more, and quickness are more important than simply smashing the blade as hard as you can.
  5. the beat is quick – to be successful beats must give the opponent as little warning as possible. Quick fingers, with some wrist action, are necessary.
  6. the beat is crisp and dry – one impact with the blade with a crisp sound.
  7. the beat stops lateral or vertical motion on impact and transitions immediately to forward action. The beat should drive the opponent’s blade in the desired direction with an energy transfer at the point of contact. This transfer should leave the blade ready to immediately move forward from the point of impact toward the target. One way to think of this is as a shallow angle bounce off a trampoline.
  8. the resulting attacking action hits the target. In the big scheme of fencing actions, beats do the same thing as compound attacks and takings of the blades. They put the opponent’s blade in motion, opening a line that you can exploit. In any of the weapons this makes them an important part of your toolkit of technique, and one that deserves constant practice.